International Institute for Sport History
Library & Museum
State College, PA 16804

page 4

Compiled by Harvey Abrams, BS, MAT, Ph.D/abd
Olympic Games & Sport Historian

Hello everyone!! This page is being updated. Latest updates were made on AUSTRALIA, February 5, 2023. Many revisions are coming in February..

This page lists all 206 National Olympic Committees (NOC) that are recognized
by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as of January 23, 2023.
For more information you should visit the web site of the International Olympic Committee.

This list is in alphabetical order in English, based upon the name of the COUNTRY in English.

The information on this page is provided as a quick reference,
a starting point for your research needs. Always check our sources
to see if it is up-to-date and the latest information available.

Due to the enormous size of this section, we plan to divide
these pages into new, separate pages in the future,
eventually a single page for each nation.

If you find broken links or incorrect information
please send us an email with details
so we may make additions or corrections.
Thank you / Merci / Danke / Grazi/ Gracias.

Addresses are given using the regulations of the United States Postal Service (USPS)
which places the name of the country on the bottom line in CAPITAL letters.
Any zip code or country code goes in the line above the country name.
Europeans addresses are slightly different.

Description of the format used here: in this example from MALTA....

  • NAME of the COUNTRY in English, in BOLD, CAPITAL letters followed by parenthesis with the (3 letter IOC abbreviation).

  • [The formal name of the country within brackets]
    followed by the languages spoken in this country in italics.

  • National Olympic Committee (NOC) Name

  • NOC Address(es)
    City, State, Zip code

  • telephone number(s)

  • fax number(s)

  • email(s) are given - but NOT as active links

  • web site(s) of the NOC - as active link(s)

  • Brief history or description of the Country. Emphasis is placed on sports and important information that might be useful in our opinion.

  • Links for further research or reference.

  • (We add images of the national flag, NOC logo and maps when possible).

  • [Republic of Malta] Maltese, English.


  • National Swimming Pool Complex
    Maria Tereza Spinelli Street
    Gzira GZR06

  • tel: (+356) 21332801

  • fax: (+356) 21332798

  • email(s):

  • web site: NOC of Malta

  • This small island nation became part of the British Empire in 1814 and gained independence in 1964. The country has 400,000 people on an island slightly smaller than Washington, DC.

  • Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Malta.
  • Logo of the Maltese Olympic Committee.

Additional notes about
the information on these pages:

1. NOC Abbreviations:

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) uses a 3-letter abbreviation for all National Olympic Committees (NOC's). These abbreviations are given in (CAPITAL LETTERS INSIDE PARENTHESIS). These abbreviations are generally from the English language, but some are from French, such as "Switzerland" (SUI) which comes from the French word "Suisse." Another example is the abbreviation for "SPAIN" (ESP) which comes from the French word "Espagne." The reason for this is because both ENGLISH and FRENCH are the official languages of the IOC, and that is because the founder, Pierre de Coubertin, was French.

2. Contact information for National Olympic Committees (NOC's):

The mailing address, telephone, fax, email and web site information are provided. But we cannot guarantee that the information is up-to-date, as some information can change without our knowledge. THEREFORE - for the most up-to-date information you should go to that country's web site, or to the IOC website. We will NOT provide the email address in the html format for you -- in order to prevent web-robots from gathering the data for spam email. If you wish to communicate directly with any NOC then type the information into your email window yourself (or simply "cut and paste").

This page (NOC page 4) is the abbreviated version, a reference source.
Each NOC will eventually be linked to a new, separate page dedicated only to that NOC and that country. When that page is up our plan is to have a SPORTS PORTAL to that nation. It will have more information about that NOC and sport in that country with further links.

3. Historical information:

The Olympic Games is a huge and popular sports event. But sport is more than just a game and a score. There is a lot of history to sport - what has happened in history has an impact on today - and tomorrow. Sport is a mirror of society - and not just American society. People created sports and activities based upon the circumstances of their culture. For example, the ancient Olympic Games was a very important religious festival, not like the Olympic Games of today. Some of the forces which have an impact on sport include economics, politics and religion. Some historical information is provided for you to help explain the development of sport in that nation and to assist you in finding more information on your own. We could easily write 200 pages about each country and their sports, history and culture. For example, gymnastic "vereins" developed in Germany as a way to develop POLITICAL power by using sport and fitness as an excuse to gather at a meeting place. Archery developed in England as training for the king's army. Martial arts developed in Japan, Okinowa, China and other areas as a method of self defense. We do plan a HISTORY OF SPORT book series in the future for each country, so watch our website for details.

4. Updates, corrections, additions, deletions:

This is a long-term educational project -- your scholarly participation is welcome. Sports historians are especially welcome to participate. If you are interested in adding information to these pages -- please offer your time and knowledge.


Please assign projects to your students that can be added to these pages, such as SPORT IN CANADA or HISTORY OF SPORT IN GERMANY or NOC's of AFRICA. Pick a topic and have a group of students work on it, send us the results, and if it's well done (and subject to our editing) we will use it on this website. Contributor(s) will get credit by first name, age and state/country only (ie: John, 15, Missouri, or Elizabeth, 16, Australia) in order to maintain some privacy.

Our basic sources of information are:

1. IOC website and their publications in our library: IOC website - NOC Lists

2. CIA FACTBOOK hosted by the Central Intelligence Agency: CIA FACTBOOK

The CIA FACTBOOK is a gold mine of information. We have relied upon their researchers for much of the information about each nation's size and population, languages spoken and some historical background. The information from their website is in the public domain, so we do not credit them every time we use their information. However we do provide a link for you directly to the page where we found the information. Contrary to rumor - Mr. Abrams does not work for the CIA. Even if he did, we could not tell you.

3. Websites of the various NOCS, Embassies and Consulates of the various countries.

We providethe websites of the NOC's but not the embassies and consulates. We cannot provide this information - too much and too often changed. YOU search on GOOGLE for a source by using search words such as: "British embassy, Vienna, Austria" or Italian embassy, Japan."

4. United States Department of State Consular Affairs: Bureau of Consular Affairs

The USA provides a guide for Americans who want to travel to other countries. We encourage you to travel and learn about the world outside the USA. This service will help you to plan your trip and will offer assistance in most countries in case you need help. Always see the "Travel Advisories" before entering any country.

5. European National Olympic Committees European National Olympic Committees

This is an association of fifty (50) National Olympic Committees in Europe that works together to promote sport and the Olympic Movement within Europe. There is a lot of information available at this website including their newsletters in pdf format. If you are researching sport in this region then use this site for up-to-date events. They have a downloadable "DIRECTORY" here.

Their office is in Italy:

Palazzina CONI
"Villino Giulio Onesti"
Via della Pallacanestro, 19
00135 Rome
Tel.(+39) 06 36 85 78 28
Fax (+39) 06 36 85 76 66

The fifty (50) National Olympic Committee (NOC) members are:

Albania - Andorra - Armenia - Austria - Azerbaijanv Belarus - Belgium - Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bulgaria - Croatia - Cyprus - Czechia - Denmark - Estonia - Finland - France - Georgia - Germany - Great Britain - Greecev Hungary - Iceland - Ireland - Israel - Italy - Kosovo - Latvia - Liechtenstein - Lithuania - Luxembourg - Malta - Monaco - Montenegro - Netherlands - North Macedonia - Norway - Poland - Portugal - Republic of Moldova - Romania - Russian Federation - San Marino - Serbia - Slovakia - Slovenia - Spain - Sweden - Switzerland - Türkiye - Ukraine.

6. Scholarly Sports Sites: Scholarly Sports websites and the H.J. Lutcher Stark Center for Physical Culture and Sports

This scholarly resource was originally organized and maintained by Gretchen Ghent, librarian at the University of Calgary, Canada. In 2010 she retired and the site moved to the University of Texas at Austin. The site is now hosted and updated by the staff at the H.J. Lutcher Stark Center for Physical Culture and Sports, a research center within the Department of Kinesiology and Health Education and the College of Education at The University of Texas at Austin. Gretchen Ghent was a former American swimmer and professional librarian who worked at the University of Calgary in Canada her entire career. She made a tremendous impact in the field of sport research and sport information. She passed away October 31, 2011. Terry Todd was a co-founder of the H.J. Lutcher Stark Center, an athlete and academic at several different universities in the USA. He passed away on July 7, 2018 in Austin, Texas at the age of 80.

NOTE: On February 5, 2023 we could not find this page - it seems to have disappeared. Very sad, it was a good resource.
We will make an effort to find out if it will be reposted.
The IISOH is already building a similar site that will be posted in February 2023.

7. Western European Studies Section/WESSWEB: (archived, migrated to a new site - see below) Association of College & Research Libraries -- Western European Studies Links

This scholarly site will give you many hundreds of links to resources in various European countries for historical, educational and many other resources. BUT it migrated to another location and combined to make a MUCH LARGER resource. So click on the link below.

European Studies Section of the Association of College & Research Libraries

8. Library of Congress, Federal Research Division: Country Studies. Library of Congress Federal Research Division: Country Studies.

In-depth research conducted by scholars for the US Army.

9. World - links to newspapers around the world: World - LINKS

News sources in every country in their own words. Go here for daily news reports via links. You should read as much as you can from different sources in order to piece together a whole story -- because no matter where you look there will be some bias or error. Do your research, and do it well! The link below is their "SITEMAP" and makes it easier to find what interests you - check it out.
Alphabetical list of Countries, States, Subjects, Topics, etc.

10. WORLD INFO ZONE -- WIZ Around the World: World Info Zone -- LINKS

Very nice source to begin research on a country; brief descriptions; links. British host.

11. World Olympians Association: World Olympians Association.

This is an association for former Olympic athletes from every country of the world. There are ten thousand athletes at every olympic celebration - so this group could potentially be huge.

12. Embassy.Org: the Electronic Embassy Foreign Embassies in the Washington DC area

This site gives information about all foreign embassies that are in Washington, D.C. - a source that you should use for current information about a specific nation, especially if you want to travel there.

13. Radio Free Europe & Radio Liberty: Radio Free Europe & Radio Liberty

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty is a private, international communications service to Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Middle East, funded by the United States Congress. They broadcast into nations that do not have a free and independent press. They have a strict journalistic standard that can provide useful information as a background to sport. It is NOT funded by the CIA.

14. Enchanted Learning web site: US States Area and Ranking US States: Area in square miles

This page lists all the states of the USA with their size in square miles which allows you to compare the size of the countries below to your home state. You may have to convert "kilometers" to "miles" so pay attention to what you are comparing! The site is free, you do NOT have to pay unless you want to avoid all the ads.

You can see from the information presented here what we are trying to do -- and if you wish to help -- please do so. This is an educational, public service of the International Institute for Sport History Library & Museum.

National Olympic Committees of the World

As of today - February 5, 2023 - this Page 4 directory is all on one page.
BUT over the next few months each National Olympic Committee will be
linked as a seperate page with much more information.
As you can see we have a lot of work to do!!


[Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ] Formerly: Republic of Afghanistan; Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism.

Afganistan National Olympic Committee
[National Olympic Committee of the Islamic Republic of Afganistan]

The various sources give different addresses and telephone numbers, so it is difficult to know which are accurate.
P.O Box 5790
Kabul Central Post Office
Phone: +937 993 13030
Phone: +93799313030

Our older address was:

P.O. Box 1824 GPO
tel: (93) 752 060 849
fax: (93) 202 102 470
web site: Official Website of the Olympic Movement in Afganistan

See numerous articles on the Afgan NOC website here: Sitemap - Main Menu

2nd web site: National Olympic Committee of the Islamic Republic of Afganistan

The second website of the Afganistan NOC is not up to date. The English page refers to the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. To obtain recent information do a web search using Google and the search words "Afghanistan at the Olympics." Also try "Afghanistan National Olympic Committee." You should be careful about your sources, of course.

For a lengthy history of Afganistan from ancient times to the present see: History of Afganistan. Wikipedia has improved a lot but should still be used only as a basic start in your research. Find more sources here and continue your research - sometimes trolls fill the page with disinformation.
The country is slightly smaller than Texas with a population of approximately 34 million people. The last census was in 1979 and was not completed because of the Soviet invasion of Afganistan that led to the US boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympic Games. Since 2001 the US has led a coalition of nations in a war against terrorism (Taliban and Osama bin Laden) that has kept this country in turmoil. Afganistan has had very few athletes compete in the Olympic Games and no Olympic champions. In recent years women have competed in spite of threats from radical Muslims. Some very interesting stories available for your research.

  1. Afganistan on the IOC web site. Afganistan NOC

  2. Reuters (US Edition): Olympics-In war-ravaged Afghanistan, combat sports reign.
    News article by By Amie Ferris-Rotman and Sayed Hassib in Kabul, Afganistan, Monday, February 20, 2012. A timely article about three athletes preparing to go to the 2012 London Olympic Games.

  3. Independent Online (South Africa): Afgans' Other Battle: Getting Back to Soccer.
    News article in a South African news website about soccer in Afganistan illustrates the influence of politics and war on sport and vice-versa. Published July 20, 2002.

  4. Olympic Council of Asia website: Afganistan
    A nice page with general details about the country and its sports.

  5. International Security Assistance Force: Military helps forge US-Afgan Olympic Partnership.

  6. Afganistan Online: Afganistan Online home page
    A website hosted in the USA with extensive information in many subjects about Afganistan. See the sports link for extensive sports coverage.

  7. Bahktar News Agency:Bakhtar News Agency is the official state news agency of the Afghan government, based in Kabul and is a major source of news for all media in the country in English.

    Read more at the CIA Factbook: Afganistan

    This NOC was updated and all links were working on August 8, 2018.

Netherlands Antilles

The NOC Logo at left, the flag at right

On October 10, 2010, the Netherlands Antilles, consisting of six islands in the Caribbean Sea, was dissolved and ceased to exist. The people had voted to change their legal status after Aruba became a separate nation. The larger islands of Sint Maarten and Curacao also joined the Netherlands as constituent countries. Therefore, the Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four separate countries: the Netherlands, Aruba, Sint Maarten and Curacao (similar to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland). The three smallest islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba are special municipalities of the Netherlands - not the Kingdom of the Netherlands. There are now two NOC's, Aruba and the Netherlands.


[Republic of Albania] Formerly: People's Socialist Republic of Albania; Albanian (Tosk dialect), Greek.
[Republika e Shqiperise]

Albanian National Olympic Committee
[aka] (National Olympic Committee of Albania)
(Komiteti Olimpik Kombëtar Shqiptar)
Rruga "Muhamet Gjollesha"

mailing address:
P.O. Box 63
Sheshi Mustafa K. Ataturk
(ish 21 Dhjetori)

tel: (355.42} 235 249
tel: (355.42) 240 602
fax: (355.42) 240 565
web site:
web site English version: Albanian NOC English start page
This "English page" does not have much in English on the day I retrieved it...August 15, 2018.
HOWEVER, there are articles in English if you check all the linked categories, such as this one: Olympic Week and Days in Albania 2017

Albania has a population of slightly over 3.0 million in an area smaller than Maryland. A little over 50 percent of the nation is Muslim. All mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited as Albania became officially atheist. In November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice again. The area was known as Illyria in ancient days, and was conquered by the Romans. Later it was conquered by the Turks and became part of the Ottoman empire. After the 1912-1913 Balkans wars, it gained independence. During World War II it was invaded by the Italians. After WWII Albania alligned itself with the Soviet Union and later with Communist China. A very repressive dictatorship ended in 1990 when Albania became a democracy. The country is struggling to overcome serious internal problems including crime and unemployment. It is one of the poorest countries in Europe with approximately two telephones per 100 inhabitants, and in some villages there is no telephone service at all. Albania has turned to the "West" and joined NATO. The nation is currently trying to achieve the required elements in order to join the European Union. Albanians love football (soccer to Americans). Albanian athletes have competed in the Olympic Games starting in 1972

  1. Association of National Olympic Committees Albanian National Olympic Committee
  2. Twitter accout of the Albanian NOC Official Twitter account of the Albanian National Olympic Committee, recognized by the IOC in 1959. #NOCalbania #KOKSH
  3. Tirana Times, Albanian Athletes at the 2016 Olympic Games Albania to send reduced team of athletes to Rio 2016 Olympics, Tirana Times, February 19, 2016
  4. Type "Albania" into the search function for a large number of articles in English from the British Broadcasting Company, an excellent source of information.
  5. Albanian Daily News (in English): Albanian Daily News
  6. Library of Congress, Country Studies: ALBANIA. 340 page pdf. Albania: a country study
    A Federal study that was completed in 1992, so it is good for history, but NOT GOOD for up-to-date research needs.
  7. InsidetheGames Albanian Olympic Committee hold talks in Bulgaria
    There are more articles about Albania on this page, scroll down.
  8. Sport in Albania Sport and Adventure
  9. SuperSport website SuperSport website, in Albanian
  10. Ministry of Education and Sports of Albania Ministry of Education and Sports - Albania
  11. Albanian Coalition for Child Education, (ACCE) Ministry of Education, Sport and Youth

Read more at the CIA Factbook: Albania

Search on Google or other search engines with keywords such as: "Ministry of Education and Sport of Albania," "Sport in Albania," "Olympic Games Albania" or other word combinations.

This NOC was updated and all links were working on August 15, 2018.

ALG Algeria
AND Andorra
ANG Angola
ANT Antigua & Barbuda


[Argentine Republic] Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French.
[Republica Argentina]

Argentine Olympic Committee
[or] Olympic Committee of Argentina
Comite Olimpico Argentino
Juncal 1662
Buenos Aires 1062

(Address in Spanish):
Juncal 1662
Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires
Republica Argentina

tel: (54 11) 48 19 17 00
fax: (54 11) 48 19 17 03
web site: Comité Olimpico Argentino (In Spanish)
As of August 17, 2018 there was no English language version of the website for the NOC of Argentina.

Argentina is approximately four times bigger than Texas, or approximately 22 times larger than Pennsylvania. The population is approximately 44.3 million people. One third of the country lives in or around Buenos Aires. Originally the ancient land of the INCA Indians. Spanish explorers arrived in the 1500's. Argentina is the second largest country in South America and gained independence from Spain in 1816. Its history as a nation is full of revolutions and civil wars, military and civilian governments. After World War II it was ruled by the authoritarian dictator Juan Peron and his wife Eva, made famous in an American broadway show and movie entitled EVITA. Numerous German Nazis escaped from Europe after world war II to hide in Argentina. It was here in 1960 that Israeili agents kidnapped the notorious Adolf Eichmann and flew him back to Israel where he was tried and executed for war crimes. In 1982 Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands (called Maldives by Argentina) in the South Atlantic ocean and had a brief but nasty war with Great Britain. Since 1983 Argentina has progressed towards a full democracy with varying degrees of success.
Argentinians love soccer and have won the World Cup twice (1978, 1986). Polo is popular as well as rugby, tennis, golf, hiking in the Andes mountains and water sports -- especially along the long Atlantic coastline.

  1. Secretary of Sport -- Government of Argentina (in Spanish): Secretaria de Deporte de Jefatura de Ministros
  2. Argentina Consulate in New York City: Argentine Football
  3. The New York Times online, November 26, 2011: In Argentina, Violence is Part of the Soccer Culture.
  4. Sports in Latin America - LANIC: Sports in Latin America
    This page is fill of links to sports organizations in all of Latin America, including Argentina. HOWEVER, the hosts stopped updating the page in 2015.
  5. Extravagance Magazine: Polo in Argentina
  6. BBC News: Latin America & Caribbean: (online) UK criticises "tasteless" Falklands Olympic ad:
  7. Euronews, ARGENTINA: All news about Argentina, in English.
  8. Popular Sports in Argentina
  9. News Argentina's Love Affair With Polo
  10. Duke University; Politics and Sport in Latin America: Soccer Politics: Argentina. By David Nammour and Will Flaherty.

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Argentina

This NOC was updated and all links were working on August 17, 2018.


[Republic of Armenia] Armenian, Kurdish (Yezidi), Russian.
[Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun] formerly known as: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic.

National Olympic Committee of Armenia
Abovyan Street 9
0001 Yerevan

tel: (374 10) 529-797
fax: (374 10) 545 789
web site: (In Kurdish) (National Olympic Committee of Armenia) in Kurdish
web site: (In English) National Olympic Committee of Armenia
web site: (In Russian) (National Olympic Committee of Armenia) in Russian
[Note]: A review was made on September 16, 2018 that found the three versions of the web site to be slightly different. Some of the links do not work and photos do not load because the html format is missing or incorrect. To be thorough, we suggest that you compare all three pages, especially for images.

Armenia is a small country of just over 3.0 million people, east of Turkey in southwest Asia. The country is slightly smaller than the state of Maryland. Armenia is an ancient land, the first nation to adopt Christianity in the 4th century CE. It has been repeatedly conquered and occupied by various invaders including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, Ottoman and Russian empires. It was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1920 and regained independence September 21, 1991 from the Soviet Union. Armenia is primarily a Christian nation which is currently having conflicts with its primarily Muslim neighbor Azerbaijan, which also gained its independence from the Soviet Union. They are fighting over the Nagorno-Karabakh region, which is in Azerbaijani territory but primarily Armenian-populated. There has been a long-standing historical antagonism with Turkey. The issue of massacres to the Armenian community in the first part of the 20th century has never been addressed by the Turkish government, which at the time was the Ottoman empire.

I cannot begin to explain these still hot issues! But they are great topics for your further research -- because sport, religion and politics do mix. Read a nice description at the CIA website (link below). I am also adding some news links so you can follow in English. Here is a short descrition from the CIA page on the current international tension in this area:

"The dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; ethnic Armenian groups in the Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian Government."

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Armenia

This NOC was updated and all links were working on September 16, 2018.

ARU Aruba
ASA American Samoa

Hello everyone!! This page is being updated NOW... Thanks to Gavin for volunteer assistance...Latest updates were made on February 5, 2023. Many additions are coming.... AUSTRALIA (AUS)

[COMMONWEALTH OF Australia] English, native languages.

[Note: The AOC moved their office to a new address in 2013].

Australian Olympic Committee
Museum of Contemporary Art
PO Box R1788
Royal Exchange NSW 1225

tel: +61 (02) 9247 2000
fax: +61 (02) 8436 2198

web site: Australian Olympic Committee

The Australian Olympic Committee has a number of regional offices around the country - you will find their addresses here:
Australian Olympic & Media Contacts

Australia is the only country in the world that is also a single continent. The continent of Australia has been inhabited by ancient civilizations for at least sixty thousand years. European settlers first arrived on the continent on January 26, 1788. Part of the British Commonwealth of Nations, the head of state was England's Queen Elizabeth until her death in 2022. The head of state is now King Charles III since September 8, 2022. In 1999 the Australians went to the polls and voted to remain in the British Commonwealth rather than become an independent Republic.

In size the Australian continent is slightly smaller than the 48 states of the continental USA with a population of approximately 26 million people. Australian athletes have participated in the Olympic Games since they began in 1896. Melbourne hosted the 1956 summer Olympic Games and Sydney hosted the 2000 summer Olympic Games. There is a vast amount of information about the 2000 Olympic Games available for your use -- in English -- on the web and in libraries.

At the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio there was a lot of controversy with the Australian Olympic team. They refused to move into their building at the Olympic Village because of numerous defects such as electrical and plumbing problems, toilets that did not function and other health hazards. The NOC itself has had some problems with staff complaints about a harsh work environment.

Australia with be the site of the 2032 summer Olympic Games. Brisbane, Queensland was selected to be the host city. These Olympic Games are officially known as the Games of the XXXV Olympiad and are also known as "Brisbane 2032."

  1. Australian Olympic Committee Moves Offices Office Space in Museum of Contempory Art Building Leased To Australian Olympic Committee, 28 May, 2013, Jeremy Piggin.

  2. State Library of New South Wales (Australia) ORIGINAL location of Archived pages of the Sydney Olympic Games Organizing Committee

    NEW location of archived pages of the Sydney Olympic Games Organizing Committee

    These pages - thousands of them -- were from the Organizing Committee of the Sydney Games and were maintained here "permanently" for researchers worldwide. It was a great idea in the information age. The Official Report was found here along with many other documents on these Games. Pages were available in twelve (12) different languages.

    UPDATE February 5, 2023: Moved to another location - the National Library of Australia as archived pages. these pages are so difficult to access it requires a serious effort. The website design is difficult to navigate and to find anything is challenging, but it has over 750,000 pages. Sadly this was a huge mistake from the researcher's point of view. Perfect evidence why the internet is not as useful as a good library with printed matter. Data was removed, links may or may not work and information simply disappears.

    UPDATED links are ABOVE...working on the section below...NOT updated.

  3. ABC News Online (Australian Broadcasting Corporation): ABC news front page with links
    This site is current Australian News online with many links including Sport and a search box for archived articles.

  4. Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, Australia: 1956 Olympic Games Poster

  5. Museum Victoria, Australia: Marvelous Melbourne - The Olympic Games 1956

  6. Pandora: Australia's Web Archive:Olympic Games - 2000 - Australian Internet Sites

  7. Rochedale (Australia) State School: Australia: The Games and the New Millennium (archived web page at the WAYBACKMACHINE

  8. Athletics Australia: Athletics Australia -- Governing Body for Athletics in Australia
    The above link takes you to the front page and this link takes you to their Organization page, where you will find a link to the History of Athletics in Australia: Inside Athletics Australia

  9. ACHPER Australia: Australian Council Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Inc. (ACHPER).
    The above link takes you to the front page of this educational website. Type into the search box "Olympic Games" and 13 pages will pop up.

  10. Controversy Within the Australian Olympic Committee AOC at war: Timeline of how the Australian Olympic Committee fallout started and escalated. Herald Sun, April 27, 2017 7:21am.

    [Note]: On September 16, 2018 it was difficult to find an address for this newspaper source, not a single page at their web site even mentioned where this newspaper was available. On Wikipedia it states: "The Herald Sun is a morning newspaper based in Melbourne, Australia published by The Herald and Weekly Times, a subsidiary of News Corp Australia, itself a subsidiary of News Corp. The Herald Sun primarily serves Victoria and shares many articles with other News Corporation daily newspapers, especially those from Australia."

  11. Australian Olympic Committee's Toxic Scars Exposed
    [Note]: This source is easier to identify, it is an online news source based in Sydney, Australia but also part of the larger News Corp Australia network.

  12. Australian Olympic Committee Media Center; Media Releases and Gallery Australian Olympic Committee News Office

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: CIA FACTBOOK - Australia

This NOC was updated and all links were working on September 16, 2018.

[Republic of Austria] German

[Republik Österreich]

Österreichisches Olympischen Comité
Rennweg 46-50 / Stiege 1 / Top 7
1030 Wien
tel: +43 (0) 1 799 55 11
fax: +43 (0) 1 799 55 11-20
Office hours:
not posted on their web site

web site: Österreichisches Olympischen Comité (Austrian Olympic Committee) in GERMAN only
web site: Site Map (many links)

Facebook page: Olympic Team Austria Facebook Page

Austria is located in central Europe north of Italy and is slightly smaller than the state of Maine, (two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania), with a population of approximately 8.7 million people. This region of central Europe has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The Roman empire extended this far east and was a trading center with the local Celtic population. The Romans ruled over the region by the Danube (Donau) for almost 500 years and they founded numerous settlements. The Romans eventually withdrew from the Danube region, abandoning their once-flourishing cities, such as Carnuntum in Pannonia, due to invasions. Ruins of a Roman fort have been uncovered in present-day Vienna after subway construction led to finding the ruins. Recent excavations in the center of the city have found ruins of a settlement dating back 5,000 years.

For centuries waves of migrants moved into the area of present-day Austria including Germanic tribes and Hunnic horsemen from the east. Later, eastern Austria was settled by the Avars while Baiuvarii, from the southern German, advanced along the Danube. Slavic peoples settled in northern Lower Austria, Carinthia and southern Styria. At the end of the 8th century, Charlemagne established the Carolingian East March between the rivers Enns, Raab and Drau (Drava) as a bulwark against further Avar advance.

During the Middle Ages (in 976) the Babenbergs, a Bavarian noble family, were entrusted with the administration of the region. They expanded their power over the next few centuries through planned marriages and became one of the empire’s leading families. In 1156, Austria was elevated to the status of a duchy and was granted important privileges. By the time the last male Babenberg died in the mid-13th century, the dynasty had significantly expanded their dominion.

The Habsburgs, originally from Swabia, were "enfeoffed" with the Duchy of Austria in 1282. That means that they were given land in exchange for their pledge of service to the emperor. They did not get to own the land - it belonged to the emperor, they got to control it, live on it, farm it, make money from it. Duke Albert V, who had married the daughter of Emperor Sigismund, became the first Habsburg to actually wear the imperial crown - he become emperor in 1437.

Over the centuries that followed his successors wore the crown of the Holy Roman Empire with only short interruptions. The House of Habsburg used skilful marital policies to expand its territory, adding Burgundy and the Netherlands, and also ruling Spain. In 1522, the Habsburg dynasty was divided into a Spanish and an Austrian line, and the latter also acquired Bohemia and Hungary when the last Jagiellonian king died in 1526. The 16th and 17th centuries were marked by conflict with the Ottoman Empire, whose vast armies advanced through Austria and were defeated twice in military battles at Vienna. Having successfully pushed back the Ottoman expansion, Austria acquired additional territories, and emerged as a great European power. For this reason Europeans speak a variety of native languages instead of Arabic. And through this military event, Austrians learned about coffee beans, taken from the invading Turkish armies, and created coffee "houses" that evolved into the famous cafes throughout Europe today.

In the second half of the 18th century, Empress Maria Theresa and her son Joseph II introduced sweeping reforms that provided the basis for a modern administrative government. As a result of the French Revolution and then the Napoleonic Wars the Holy Roman Empire dissolved. In 1806 Emperor Francis II renounced the Roman imperial crown. Two years earlier he had followed the lead of Napoleon and declared Austria an empire. Europe then had three major empires, French, Austrian and Russian. The German Empire (Deutsches Reich) came later, created in 1871 after the Franco-Prussian War and lasted until 1918.

In 1867, Emperor Francis Joseph approved the establishment of the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. This multinational state existed from 1867 to 1918 and then collapsed after the First World War. Read the wikipedia article for a good summary of the history of Austria-Hungary and how this empire collapsed at the end of World War I. Americans, who usually read about the trench warfare of Word War I in France and Belgium, know little to nothing about the battles in central and eastern Europe that caused both the Russian and the Austro-Hungarian empires to collapse. New countries came into being after the "great war" and led to more tension that resulted in World War II. Lots of research and reading on this topic - so spend time to understand how complex history has been.

Austria was proclaimed a republic in 1918, but after the collapse of the empire it remained weak and fragile politically. In 1938 the country was absorbed into Germany by Hitler's aggression and was treated as an enemy when the war ended in 1945. Like defeated Germany, Austria was occupied by Allied forces from the United States, Britain, France and Russia. In 1955, the Austrian Parliament passed a constitutional law to guarantee permanent Austrian neutrality, and in the same year the country became a member of the United Nations. With the guarantee of neutrality (like Switzerland) the four occupying nations withdrew and Austria became a free and independent nation. Austria became a member of the European Union on January 1, 1995.

The winter Olympic Games were hosted at Innsbruck in 1964 and again in 1976. The host city for the 1976 winter Olympic Games was supposed to be Denver but the public rallied to protest and after a state-wide referendum barred any Colorado money from being spent on the Games the IOC moved them to Innsbruck. In the Olympic Games Austria has a long and strong history in the sport of skiing.

Americans fell in love with Austria in 1965 when the film The Sound of Music became a hit and won ten Academy Awards, including best film. The opening scenes were breathtaking as the camera closed in from above to the top of an Alpine meadow where actress Julie Andrews sang the opening song "The hills are alive with the sound of music...." However, most Austrians have never seen the movie.

The International Institute for Sport History (IISOH) plans to open a European office in Vienna, Austria, in 2019 to further advance the collection development of the Institute's Library and Museum collections. Large collections of literature will be acquired and shipped back to Pennsylvania in order to develop the comprehensive collections needed for its mission.

  1. The Austrian Embassy, Washington, D.C. History of Austria

  2. Vindabona, the Roman fortress on the Danube (Vienna, Austria) Roman Museum, Vienna, Austria

  3. The Roman Museum, Vienna Römermuseum

  4. Vindobona, Roman Military Camp - Wikipedia Vindobono

  5. A History of Austria-Hungary - Wikipedia Austria-Hungary

  6. Austria at the Olympic Games: Wikipedia Austria at the Olympic Games
    [Note]: There are lots of statistics here; please check their sources for accuracy.

  7. Sports for the disabled in Austria Sports Structure for People With Disabilities

  8. Sports in Vienna Sports in Vienna

  9. Fun Sports in Austria by Markus Egger Fun Sports in Austria blog
    Markus Egger lives in the USA and Austria and he writes about his sports adventures when he is in Austria. His photos are excellent and he is a computer whiz. I think his German is much better than mine - with a funny Austrian accent.

  10. Internet Movie Database website: The Sound of Music (1965)

  11. London 2012 production of the show The official website for Andrew Lloyd Webber's production of The Sound of Music.

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Austria

This NOC was updated and all links were working on September 17, 2018.

[Republic of Azerbaijan] Formerly: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic; Azerbaijani (Azeri) 90.3%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.9% (1999 census).
[Azarbaycan Respublikasi]

National Olympic Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Olympic street 9
Baku AZ1072

tel: (994-12) 465 1323 (and) 441-04-24
fax: (994-12) 465 4225

Official Twitter account: Official Twitter Account of the National Olympic Committee of Azerbaijan

web site: NOC of Azerbaijan in their language, Azerbaijani (Azeri)
web site : NOC of Azerbaijan in ENGLISH

Try this link for additional information at the website of the International Olympic Committee (IOC):
NOC Azerbaijan NOC Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan is a small country of slightly more than 10 million people, and it is slightly smaller than the state of Maine. The country considers itself European but is located in Southwest Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus mountain range. This is a nation that was part of the Soviet Union -- with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population (93.4%). It only regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its territory and must support some 800,000 refugees and internally displaced persons as a result of the conflict. There is potential for great wealth from petroleum resources which are as yet undeveloped. Local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton.

Sport in Azerbaijan dates to antiquity. Horseback riding and sports included both men and women. Wrestling was one of the most ancient sports practiced. Since 1952 athletes from Azerbaijan were part of the Olympic team of the Soviet Union, which placed mostly Russian athletes on the teams for many years. Some athletes from Azerbaijan distinguished themselves in the Olympic Games but are recorded in history books as athletes from the Soviet Union. The independence of Azerbaijan led to the creation of its own Olympic Committee in 1992. A number of athletes have won medals in the Olympic Games since then.


  2. Once in a Lifetime Journey; a Private Blog by MAR Fun and interesting facts about Azerbaijan you should know
    One of the few private websites/blogs that have used as a resource because of the high quality research and writing. Not an endorsement for their services.

  3. Heydar Aliyev Foundation Sport History in Azerbaijan
    This site has a nice page on the history of sport in Azerbaijan but is very biased and might not be a balanced view of history, especially other pages on politics in the region.

  4. Inside Azerbaijani Sports

  5. Azerbaijan Republic Ministry of Youth, Sport and Tourism: Azerbaijan Ministry of Sport English language pages
    This site has a lot of information but the English language pages might not post unless you click on the British English language flag which is located to the left of the search function (top right corner of the page). Click on the Azerbeijani flag and the English flag will appear, then click on that.

  6. Azerbaijan International Independent News Agency website: Olympic Committee marks 10th anniversary

  7. Azerbaijan International, Autumn, 2000: Conoco Sponsors Olympics

  8. Embassy of Azerbaijan in Washington, DC: Embassy of Azerbaijan

  9. Wikipedia article Sport in Azerbaijan

Read more at the CIA Factbook: Azerbaijan

This NOC was updated and all links were working on November 20, 2018.

BAH Bahamas

BAN Bangladesh

BAR Barbados

BDI Burundi

[Republic of Belarus] Belarusian, Russian, Polish, Ukrainian.

National Olympic Committee of the Republic of Belarus
Raduzhnaja str., 27-2
220020, Minsk

(former address was:)
Y. Kolasa str. 2
BY-220005 Minsk

Tel.: +375 (17) 309-25-02
Fax: +375 (17) 309-25-37
web site: The NOC of the Republic of Belarus

Belarus was part of the Soviet Union and is now an independant nation with very close ties to Russia. It is a country of 9.5 million people east of Poland, north of the Ukraine, with northern neighbors Lithuania and Latvia and eastern neighbor Russia. The country is slightly smaller than Kansas. Although the country is a republic in name, it remains in fact a dictatorship and is considered to be the least democratic nation in Europe. Many athletes from Belarus have won medals in the Olympic Games since 1952, but they were part of the team from the Soviet Union (USSR) including gymnast Olga Korbut, 1972 Munich. At the NOC of the Republic of Belarus website you can read about their success.

  1. Sports and Tourism Ministry Sport in Belarus

  2. Belarus Facts: Embassy of Belarus in Austria Sports.

  3. Belarus Facts: Embassy of Belarus in the United States Search Engine result with over 150 links

  4. Physical Education and Sport in Belarus Belarusian State University of Physical Culture

    This page could not be found on a search January 3, 2019 but might still exist with a different url, so we will leave it here for now

  5. Belarusian State University of Physical Culture About the Belarusian State University of Physical Education

  6. Belarusian National Technical University Physical Education

  7. Grodno State Medical University Department of Physical Education and Sport

  8. President of the Republic of Belarus 23 May 2013, Belarus is rightly considered the country of sport fans.

  9. Belarusian Sports A Tribute page to Belarusian Athletes

    Many links at the bottom of this page for the history of Belarus and other topics including Statehood, Culture, Law and Politics, Cities, Nature and Geography, Travel, Global Resources, Dictionaries, Chernobyl, Genealogy, Industry each with many links.

  10. Belarus Digest Lukashenka's Sport Diplomacy

    This site is published by Belarusians living outside their country. In their own words: "Belarus Digest was launched in Washington, D.C. in 2008. Today our authors write on Belarus from London, Boston, Berlin, Moscow and Minsk. Belarus Digest provides non-partisan analysis of Belarus-related events written by Belarusians specifically for an English-language readership. Belarus regime's conduct and poor reputation provides a fertile ground for all kinds of myths and speculations. Belarus Digest tries to de-mystify Belarus and write about what is actually going on in the country. The project's contributors regularly appear as commentators on Belarus-related topics for leading international media such as BBC World TV, AlJazeera, Radio Liberty and others." There are several links within including Digest, Politics, Economy, Security, Social and Myths.

  11. Belarusian Telegraph Agency The Official Website of the Republic of Belarus.
    This site is the official government version of the news from Belarus.

  12. United States Department of State Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs Fact Sheet, April 12, 2018
    According to the CIA Belarus is a dictatorship. US-Belarus relations are strained and since 2008 the nations have removed their ambassadors from their respective missions.

    Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Belarus.

    This NOC was updated and all links were working on January 3, 2019.

[Kingdom of Belgium] Dutch (Flemish), French, German
[Koninkrijk Belgie / Royaume de Belgique]

National Olympic Committee of Belgium

(new logo for BOIC and their commercial logo) (old logo)
Dutch version of their address:

Belgisch Olympisch en Interfederaal Comité
Boechoutlaan 9,

(or the French version)...

Comité Olympique et Interfédéral Belge
Avenue de Bouchout 9,

tel: +32 (0)2 474 51 50
fax: +32 (0)2 479 46 56

web site: Belgisch Olympisch en Interfederaal Comité (Belgian Olympic Committee front page in Dutch (Flemish)
web site: Belgian NOC French language page
The web site of the Belgian NOC is in Dutch (Flemish) and French so you may have trouble using this site without these language skills. It is interesting to note that this is one of very few NOC's that have not yet created English language versions of their web site.

Belgium is a bilingual nation where both Dutch and French are the official languages. "Dutch" is the same language that is used in the Netherlands however this northern part of the country is "Flanders" and the difference in dialect leads to the name "Flemish." German is used by only 1% of the nation. There is historical friction between the Dutch speaking northern section (Flemings) and the French speaking southern section (Walloons). As a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a complex division of responsibilities.

Belgium has a long history of being in the middle of conflicts. The region was conquered by the Roman armies under Julius Caesar around 50 BCE, and changed hands several times under the control of other invaders. Napoleon was defeated at the battle of Waterloo, near Brussels in 1814, and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands was created from Belgium and Luxembourg. But the Belgians revolted and declared independence from the Netherlands in 1830. They remained neutral until the German invasion of 1914 and the battles of World War I. Immediately after the war ANTWERP hosted the 1920 Olympic Games. Then the Germans invaded again in 1940 and Belgium suffered greatly through World War II.

Belgium today has has a population of over 11.5 million people and is about the same size as the state of Maryland. Belgium is a coastal city and mostly flat, so bicycling is the most popular sport followed by football (soccer) and tennis.

  1. Sport in Belgium - London 2012 Olympic revue: The Telegraph: Belgium

  2. Philosophy of sport in Belgium and the Netherlands: history and characteristics: Ivo Van Hilvoorde, Jan Vorstenbosch and Ignaas Devisch UGent (2010) JOURNAL OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF SPORT. 37(2). p.225-236
    Academic article/abstract on the history and philosophy of sport in Belgium from the University of Ghent.

  3. Sportimonium Library and Museum: Sportimonium
    Sportimonium is a library and museum devoted to Belgium's sport history and has been developed since 2002.

  4. Lonely Planet website, many articles Lonely Planet Website, numerous articles

  5. Lonely Planet website, article about the History of Belgium History of Belgium
    This short read is from a travel publisher. It is not academic history but it does give a clear, slightly sarcastic history of Belgium with an elbow-in-the-ribs perspective.

  6. Herman De Wael's website in Belgium: Herman's Sites on the Olympic Games
    This personal website has statistical lists that include all Olympic committees and their flags, as well as lists of Olympians, IOC members, etc. He is also an editor of FLAGS OF THE WORLD so you will find gifs here that you can use on your web pages. Very nice site in English and Dutch.

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Belgium

This NOC was updated and all links were working on January 4, 2019.

BEN Benin
BER Bermuda
BHU Bhutan
BIH Bosnia-Herzegovina
BIZ Belize
BOL Bolivia
BOT Botswana

BRA Brazil
Sports in Brazil; Embassy of Brazil in London, Great Britain: Embassy of Brazil in London: SPORTS.

BRN Bahrain
BRU Brunei Darussalam
BUL Bulgaria
BUR Burkina Faso
CAF Central African Republic
CAM Cambodia

[CANADA] English, French.

Canadian Olympic Committee

Corporate Office
21 St.Clair Avenue E., Suite 900
Toronto, (Ontario) M4T 1L9

tel: (416) 962-0262
fax: (416) 967-4902

Canadian Olympic Committee Montreal Office
4141 Pierre de-Coubertin
Montréal (Québec) H1V 3N7

tel: (514) 861-3371
fax: (514) 861-2896

Canadian Olympic Committee Ottawa Office
85 rue Albert Street
14th Floor
Ottawa, (Ontario) K1P 6A4

tel: (613) 244-2020
fax: (613) 244-0169

NOC of Canada web site: Canadian NOC website front page for the English language.

Canada is the large country that borders the United States to the north, a huge nation that has a population of over 32 million people, of whom 85 percent live within 300 kilometers of the United States/Canadian border. Canada is a bi-lingual nation where English is the primary language in most provinces and French is the primary language in the province of Quebec. Canada gained its independence from Great Britain in 1867 but remains part of the British Commonwealth with Queen Elizabeth II as Head of State. Canada created their National Olympic Committee in 1907 and has a long history of participation in the Olympic Games. Montreal hosted the 1976 summer Olympic Games and Calgary hosted the 1988 winter Games. Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) hosted the 2010 winter Games.

  1. McGill University Rare Books and Special Collections Division: Canadian Olympic Collection
    The Canadian Olympic Committee closed its Montreal Information Centre and donated its entire library and archives to McGill University where it is now maintained for researchers.
  2. Government of British Columbia Ministry of Finance, Deputy Minister's Office : 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games Reports.
    Over forty links to government agency reports very useful for studying the economics of the Olympic Games among other topics.
  3. City of Vancouver website: City of Vancouver: 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.
  4. -- Sport Information resource Centre. CANOE - Canada's news, sports, entertainment, finance and lifestyle site.
  5. SLAM! Sports - Canadian sports news: SLAM! Sports - Canada's home page for sports.
  6. SLAM! Olympic Games news: SLAM! Olympic Games news.
  7. Athletics Canada homepage: Athletics Canada homepage - chose ENGLISH or FRENCH language.
  8. University of Western Ontario website: University of Western Ontario's International Centre for Olympic Studies.
  9. Olympic Stadium Montreal, Images: Images
    The text that is written is very poor English but is understandable and useful. The images are outstanding. The stadium was never finished and from the very start to the present has been embroiled in financial excess and controversy. The first Olympic Games to cost of one billion dollars ($1 billion US).
    Montreal Tower and Olympic Park: Tourisme Montreal
  10. Institute for Olympic Education; University of Alberta: University of Alberta: Institute for Olympic Education
    This link is dead but I am leaving it here for a valid reason: once a university provides such an academic service and then ceases, what happenes to the work that was done? So try to trace this project and see where it ended up, if anywhere, or ingloriously in a dumpster.
  11. The Canadian Encyclopedia: The Canadian Encyclopedia - Olympic Games pages
  12. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Archives:: CANADA

CAY Cayman Islands

CHA Chad
CHI Chile

[People's Republic of China] Chinese in various dialects. Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%).
[Country's formal name in Chinese: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo; Short form: Zhong Guo].

Chinese Olympic Committee
Tiyuguan Road 9
Beijing 100763
tel: (86 10) 671 16 669
fax: (86 10) 671 15 858
web site: Official Website of the Chinese Olympic Committee

China is the world's fourth largest country, slightly smaller than the USA. But the population is huge -- over one billion, three hundred-million people. That means for every American there are 4.6 Chinese. Imagine how hard it is to make their Olympic team! The 2012 Olympic Games were celebrated in China in the capital city of BEIJING (formerly known as PEKING).

China's history is very long, fascinating and complicated. The language is difficult for westerners. Unlike western languages such as English, French, German, Greek and Latin -- Chinese does not use an alphabet. Instead there are written symbols -- as many as fifty thousand -- that are used to communicate concepts, not sounds. The average Chinese person can read and write about 6,000 symbols -- enough to read a newspaper.

China is an ancient civilization, several thousand years old. For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. Americans study very little about China in school -- but you may recognize some of the names and events: the Boxer Rebellion, the excellent 1987 movie The Last Emperor about Pu Yi, China's last emperor, who was overthrown in 1911 by Sun Yat-sen, and his United Revolutionary League, the forerunner of the Kuomintang. This group eventually lost the civil war in China and fled to the island of Taiwan off the coast of China.

Political leaders are known to most American students through World War II and cold war politics. Chiang Kai-shek, followed Sun Yat-sen and in 1927 he ended the alliance with the Communists led by Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai. Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 while the Chinese political parties, Kuomintang and Communists, were fighting for control. Full scale war with Japan erupted in 1937 and ended in 1945. During the war, in 1942, Chiang Kai-shek became supreme allied commander of the Allied (USA and allies) forces in the China theatre. But when the Japanese surrendered -- civil war erupted between the Chinese factions and in 1949 the Communists won control of the entire country.

Chiang and his army fled to the island of Taiwan, which has acted as an independent nation, but don't say that to China, because they still consider Taiwan to be a renegade province. This whole question is a flashpoint of political and military conflict to this day. Taiwan is protected by defense treaties with the United States. China has a border with North Korea, the most politically repressive and hostile nation on earth. North and South Korea have a common border (the infamous "38th parallel") with the US military camping out right in the middle. In the early 1950's the Korean War entangled all these parties when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United States military, led by General Douglas McArthur, came to aid of South Korea. China came to the aid of North Korea. McArthur wanted to nuke the Chinese. President Truman -- who gave the go-ahead to nuke the Japanese to end World War II -- fired him. A truce was declared and hostilities ceased -- -- but the war never "officially" ended.

Then there is the issue of Hong Kong. This tiny seaport and island group was conquered by the British in 1841 and became part of the British Empire. In 1984 the British and Chinese governments signed a treaty that reverted Hong Kong back to China starting in 1997. Today Hong Kong is a special administrative unit (SAR) of China, but it remains a semi-autonomous region until 2047.

Today China has become a major economic trading partner of the USA -- and tensions have declined dramatically. China's economy is booming and imported goods flow into the USA every day. This does not diminish the fact that this region is a potential flashpoint.

Both "countries" of China and Taiwan send teams to the Olympic Games, but Taiwan can no longer use the "Chinese" flag. Hong Kong has its own National Olympic Committee, so you can read more at their listing, above. WOW -- great research stuff here for Olympic and sports students. Politics does indeed effect sport. And, of course, you know something about Chinese sport -- kung fu is an ancient Chinese martial art (actually called "Wu Shu"). Read all about it!

  1. Jim Becker, Prof. Emeritus, University of Northern Iowa, Chinese links: Chinese lnks, main page
    Jim Becker, Prof. Emeritus, University of Northern Iowa, Chinese links: Chinese links without the graphics (faster)
    There are dozens of links to excellent sites, and some of those links have hundreds of more links -- especially the academic sites, such as the one in Germany. You will be able to find more information than you could possibly use at these sites.
  2. China's official website portal to information: China Internet Information Center - main page
    This is an official Chinese government sanctioned website for information -- so you will get information from the Chinese government's point of view. This information can be compared to other sources of information which are not subjected to censorship, such as western information sources (Associated Press/AP, Reuters, United Press International/UPI, CNN, BBC, Australian news, government of the United States, etc).
  3. China Internet Information Center Sports link -- in English: China Internet Information Center - Sports page
    This link goes directly to their Sports section.
  4. China Sports Museum: China Sports Museum

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: CHINA

CIV Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
CMR Cameroon

[DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO; Republique Democratique du Congo] French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba.
Formerly known as Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire

Comité Olympique Congolais
10 Dima, B.P. 6232 Kinshasa Est

tel: (243 99) 304 22
fax: (243 12) 430 64 66 / 430 65 45

This large african nation is slightly smaller than one quarter of the USA with over 56.5 million people. Extremely poor, racked by civil wars, the life expectancy is only 49 years of age. It was a Belgian colony until 1960 when it gained freedom. Since 1998 a civil war has raged with Tutsi and Hutu tribes the most recognized combatant names to American newspaper readers. The border river with neighboring Republic of the Congo is still indefinite.

  1. International Relations and Security Network, Zurich, Switzerland: Links - Collection on the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  2. - Congo: History of a Troubled Land: - Congo: History of a Troubled Land
  3. African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania: Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire)
  4. United States Embassy in Kinshasa: The US Embassy in Kinshasa, (Democratic Republic of the Congo) website

Read more at the CIA Factbook: Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo / Zaire).

[REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, Republique du Congo] French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo has the most users)
Formerly known as Middle Congo, Congo/Brazzaville, Congo.
National Olympic and Sports Committee of Congo
Bo?te postale (PO Box) 1007

tel: (242) 94 10 89
fax: (243 12) 430 65 45 / 430 64 67

Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government was installed in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President SASSOU-NGUESSO, but ushered in a period of ethnically based unrest. Southern-based rebel groups agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003. The Republic of Congo is one of Africa's largest petroleum producers with significant potential for offshore development. The country is slightly smaller than Montana with almost 3 million people. The IOC member JEAN-CLAUDE GANGA of the Republic of the Congo was one of the six IOC members expelled as a result of the Salt Lake City (2002) Olympic scandal.

  1. The Republic of Congo Embassy
    4891 Colorado Avenue, NW, Washington DC 20011
    Telephone: (202) 726-5500
    Fax: (202) 726-1860
    Republic of the Congo Embassy
  2. African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania: African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania
  3. -- Canada's online news network: The IOC Expelled: How They Were Axed

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Republic of the Congo

[Cook Islands] English, Maori.

Cook Islands Sports and National Olympic Committee
PO Box 569

tel: (682) 24095
fax: (682) 22095
web site: Cook Islands NOC

Named after Captain Cook and found in 1770, these 15 coral and volcanic islands are in the South Pacific ocean halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand, with a total land area slightly larger than Washington, DC and home to 21,000 people.
Formerly known as Harvey Islands.

Read more at the CIA Factbook: Cook Islands.

COL Colombia
COM Comoros
CPV Cape Verde
CRC Costa Rica
CRO Croatia
CUB Cuba
CYP Cyprus

[Czech Republic] Formerly part of CZECHOSLOVAKIA. Regions include Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. Formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian (Hapsburg) empire. Capital city is Prague or Praha in Czech. Czech.
[Ceska Republika].

Czech Olympic Committee
Bene?ovsk? 6
101 00 Prague 10

tel: 420 2 7173 0622
tel: 420 2 7173 2326
fax: 420 2 7173 1318
Web site: Czech Olympic Committee website in English
Web site: Czech Olympic Committee website in Czech.

The Czech Republic is slightly smaller than South Carolina with a population of approximately 10.3 million people. This ancient land was part of the Austro-Hungarian empire until it was dismantled after World War I in 1918 when the Czech and Slovak people were combined to form Czechoslovakia alonside Austria and Hungary. A very complicated region of various nationalities, the region known as the Czech Republic was influenced more by Austria and Germany than the eastern region of Slovakia, which was influenced more by Hungary. In 1938 the Sudetenland was annexed to Nazi Germany and smaller regions were given to Hungary and Poland. But only months later the whole country was absorbed by Germany prior to the September 1, 1939 invasion of Poland. After World War II the whole region was under the influence of the Soviet Union. In 1968 the Czechoslovaks tried to democratize their socialist country but were crushed by an invasion from the Soviet Union. On January 1, 1993 Czechoslovakia ceased to exist when the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic became independent states.

One of the first 13 members of the IOC was the Czechoslovakian Jiri Guth. There is a long history of participation in the Olympics in this nation as well as a national sports movement known as the Czech Sokol Organization.

The most famous Czech athlete is probably the great runner Emil Zatopec who won the gold medal in the 5,000, 10,000 meter races and the Marathon at the 1952 Helsinki Olympic Games.

  1. Library of Congress History of Czechoslovakia: History of Czechoslovakia (If this link does not work then start here and look for CZECHOSLOVAKIA, (FORMER)
  2. Radio Prague Article: Olympic History of Prague
  4. Embassy of the Czech Republic in London: General Information on the Czech Republic
  5. Private site by Tomas in English:
    This site has a lot about Czech football (soccer to Americans) but Tomas was a college student and ceased updates in 2004. Not sure how long this site will remain available. It's very nicely done and has a lot of history for you football/soccer fans.
  6. BBC Sports page - Great Britain: Emil Zatopec image
  7. Time Magazine online: The Sudeten Standoff
  8. Runner's Guide Personalities: Emil Zatopec
  9. BBC Sports - Athletics - Obituary: Czech Legend Zatopek Dies
  10. Official web site of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic; Famous Czechs in Sport

Read more at the CIA Factbook: Czech Republic

[Kingdom of Denmark; Kongeriget Danmark ] Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority) with English as the predominant second language

National Olympic Committee and Sports Confederation of Denmark (DIF)
Danmarks Idr?ts-Forbund
Idr?ttens Hus (Sport House)
2605 Br?ndby

tel: (45) 43 26 26 26
fax: (45) 43 26 29 91
Web site: Danish NOC -- in Danish
Web site: Danish NOC -- in English

Denmark is approximately 3 times the size of Connecticut or half the size of South Carolina with a population of just under 5.5. million people. It borders the North German area of Jutland and is just across the Baltic from Sweden. In history -- this is Viking territory. The Danes conquered England in the 9th century and were a great northern European power for centuries. Denmark sided with Napoleon during the Napoleonic wars. The Danes lost much of their territory in 1814 when those wars ended in Napoleon's defeat. Denmark was neutral in World War I and declared neutrality in world War II, but Germany invaded and controlled the country until the war ended in 1945. Iceland, a former part of Denmark, became independent in 1944. The Faroe Islands and Greenland are still part of the Kingdom of Denmark but both have home rule.

The Danish National Olympic Committee merged with the Danish Sports Federation in 1993 and the new organization became known as the National Olympic Committee and Sports Confederation of Denmark. This tiny nation has 56 national sports federations in approximately 11,000 clubs, with approximately 1.6 million members. Denmark has never hosted the Olympic Games.

  1. The Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Factsheet Denmark: Body Culture and Sport
  2. The Danish EU Presidency - Sport in Denmark with some links
  3. Sport Structures in Denmark: Sport Structures in Denmark"
  4. The Danish Ministry of Culure: Sport and Local Culture. This site has several addresses and links to other Danish Sports Organisations.
  5. A Sports page from Aarhus University: Spectator Sports
  6. Sport on Danish Postage Stamps: Sport on Danish Postage Stamps
  7. The Royal Danish Embassy: The Royal Danish Embassy in Washington, DC.

Read more at the CIA Factbook: Denmark

DJI Djibouti
DMA Dominica
DOM Dominican Republic
ECU Ecuador
EGY Egypt
ERI Eritrea
ESA El Salvador
EST Estonia

  1. website: Ethiopia at the Olympics: 1956-2004

FIJ Fiji

[Finland, Suomi] Finnish, Swedish, Russian, Sami.

Finnish Olympic Committee
[Suomen Olympiakomitea]
Radiokatu 20
00240 Helsinki

tel: +358 9 3481 21
fax: +358 9 2294 520
web site: Finnish Olympic Committee

Finland was a part of Sweden for 700 years and became part of Russia in 1809, when the Swedes lost to Russia during the Napoleonic wars. In 1917 Finland declared independance when the revolution to overthrow the Czarist regime created turmoil in Russia. In 1939 Russia attacked Finland and a bitter war was fought to a stalemate at the border. Help from the British and the USA did not come because the British and Americans needed the Russians to fight the Germans. So The Finns got the Germans to help them instead. After the war the Finns were tied to the Russians economically and maintained some resentment towards the west for not helping in World War II. The 1952 Olympic Games were celebrated in drab Helsinki and Paavo Nurmi became a national hero. Finland is slightly smaller than Montana with a population of over 5 million people. It is a national pastime to sit in a hot sauna and dive into cold water. It is estimated that in this nation of 5 million people there are 2 million saunas. Finnish baseball, called Pesapollo is the national sport.

  1. Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland (in English): < AHREF=""> Your Window on Finland - Virtual Finland:
    This site has excellent pages on the history of Finland from the Finnish point of view. The English is well written - this is an excellent site to begin your studies about Finland.
  2. Sport and Fun in Finland: Sport and Fun in Finland
  3. The Sports Museum of Finland: Permanent Exhibition -- Olympic Games and Sport in Finland.
  4. Finns and Saunas: Bare Facts of the Sauna
  5. International edition of Helsingin Sanomat - Finland's largest newspaper: Helsingin Sanomat International edition
  6. University of Tampere Department of Translation Studies: Lauri Pihkala and The Development of Pes?pallo: The Finnish National Game (Niinim?ki, 2004)
  7. Welcome to Finland: Pes?pallo helps define us
    This web site has helpful information and links but appears not to have been updated since at least 2002.
  8. University of Helsinki: The Patriotic Man With a Sports Religion: Lauri Pihkala, The Champion of Modern Sports Ideology (HTML version)
    The pdf version is at this link if you have Adobe to open the page:

Read more at the CIA Factbook: Finland

[FRENCH REPUBLIC, Republique Francaise] French and rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)

National Olympic Committee of France
Comite National Olympique et Sportif Francais (CNOSF)
Maison du Sport Fran?ais
1 avenue Pierre de Coubertin
75640 Paris cedex 13

tel: 01 40 78 28 00
fax: 01 40 78 28 34
fax: 01 40 78 29 51
web site (In French): National Olympic Committee of France

France is one of the largest European countries, slightly less than twice the size of the state of Colorado, with a population of approximately 60.5 million people. France has a long and glorious history, filled with all the drama of kings and queens, castles and warfare, arts and literature. In North America there has been significant French influence, just ask anyone who lives in the Province of Quebec, Canada or New Orleans, Louisiana. It was the French fleet that trapped the British fleet off the East Coast that helped end the American Revolution and allow the British colonies to win their independence from Great Britain and form a new nation -- the United States of America. France has had a long history of conflict with England -- starting with the French (Normans) invasion by William the Conqueror in 1066. Since then their monarchs have been relatives. The French have also had a long conflict with the Germans (Prussians) -- Napoleon invaded the German states in the 1800's, and the Germans invaded France in the 1870-71 Franco-Prussian War, and again in 1914 in World War I, and in 1940 -- World War II.

Famous personalities and events include Julius Caesar who led the Roman army into Gaul during the Gallic Wars from 58-51 BC, Charlemagne (8th century), Joan of Arc (14th century), kings such as Louis XIV (known as the Sun King and also Louis the Great, who ruled for 72 years and built the Palace at Versailles), the French Revolution (1789), storming of the Bastille, King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette who lost their heads (they were guillotined) in Paris in 1793. Madame Tussaud made castings of their heads and today you can see wax versions at the Tussauds Waz Museum in -- London. There was the infamous Reign of Terror when lots of Frenchmen were guillotined, the soldier-turned-emperorNapoleon Bonaparte, his loss at the battle of Waterloo.

More famous French personalities include Alfred Dreyfus, Emile Zola, Charles de Gaulle, Louis Pasteur, writers such as Alexandre Dumas (1799-1850) who wrote "The Three Musketeers" and "The Count of Monte Cristo," and Victor Hugo (1802-1885) author of "The Hunchback of Notre Dame". Gustave Eiffel was the designer of the famous tower in Paris that bears his name. Famous artists include Claude Monet, Paul Cezanne, Henri Matisse and Pierre-August Renoir.
France has a long history of involvement with the Olympic Movement, of course. The founder of the Modern Olympic Games was Pierre de Coubertin, a French aristocrat. France lost the Franco-Prussian war (1870-1871) and it was Pierre de Coubertin who set out to revise the French educational system of Physical Education with the belief that French youth were weaker than German youth. He went to England and the United States to study their educational systems and through these travels and studies he devised a plan to revive the ancient Olympic Games. The origins of these ideas have been the subject of more attention in recent years and are excellent topics for research. Paris was the host of the Olympic Games of 1900 and again in 1924. Chamonix hosted the winter Olympic Games in 1924, Grenoble hosted them in 1968 and Alberville hosted them in 1992. French is one of the two official languages of the Olympic Movement -- the other is English. The city of Paris is placing a serious bid to host the Olympic Games of 2012.

  1. Brief history of Modern France (1914-2005) from BBC News: Timeline France: A Chronology of Key Events
  2. History of France - 58 BC to 2002 -- Embassy of France in Australia: A Brief History of France
  3. French History Timeline - graphic intensive: French History Timeline
  4. Louis XIV of France - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: Louis XIV of France
  5. Federation du Sport Universitaire: French Federation of University Sport - in French only.
  6. Ministere de la Jeunesse, des Sports et de la Vie Associative (French Ministry of Youth and Sport website): L'organisation du sport en France (The Organisation of Sport in France) - in French only.
  7. National Sport Museum (Musee national de Sport): French National Museum of Sport
  8. Embassy of France in the USA: Embassy of France in the US: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007.

Raed more at the CIA FACTBOOK: France

FSA Federated States of Micronesia
GAB Gabon
GAM Gambia
GBS Guinea-Bissau
GEO Georgia


Formerly known as German Empire (1871 unification of Prussia and 15 other states), German Republic (Weimar Republic), German Reich (Third Reich), West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany), East Germany (German Democratic Republic; Communist Germany).

National Olympic Committee of Germany
Nationales Olympisches Komitee f?r Deutschland
PO Box 71 02 63
Otto-Fleck-Schneise 12
D-60528 Frankfurt/Main

tel: +49-69 6700202
fax: +49-69 6771229
email through their web page form: email form for the NOC of Germany
web site: (In German) Nationales Olympische Komitee fur Deutschland (NOK) homepage
web site: (English pages) NOC Germany - English pages
NOC of Germany web site -- Olympic history: History of Germany at the Olympic Games.

I lived in Berlin from 1982 to 1987 as a Physical Education teacher in a German public school (gymnasium). The city was occupied by the military from the United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union. I resided and worked in West Berlin. Contrary to what my children and many of my students believe -- I was not a spy. Besides -- I am not at liberty to discuss this issue.

Situated in central Europe Germany has over 82 million people in a country that is slightly smaller than the state of Montana, or 3 times the size of Pennsylvania. Germany is the largest and most populous nation in Europe.

Germany has a long and very complicated history and has been involved with the Olympic Movement from the very beginning. Germans excavated the ancient site of Olympia and through their work ancient Greece and all its glory became a topic of great interest in the 19th century. Germans were part of the origins of the Modern Olympics along with Pierre de Coubertin, and were scheduled to host the 1916 Olympic Games in Berlin, but these were cancelled because of World War I. The Germans were not invited to the 1920 Olympic Games in Antwerp. The Games were awarded to Berlin in 1930 but Hitler came to power in 1933 and created a dictatorship in Germany. Berlin hosted the 1936 summer Olympic Games with the sailing events in Kiel; Garmisch-Partenkirchen hosted the 1936 winter Olympic Games. These Games were the first Olympics to become politically influenced and are often referred to as the NAZI Olympics.

Due to World War II the Germans were not invited to the 1948 Olympic Games in London. After World War II Germany was divided into occupation zones and two separate nations existed, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany). Beginning in 1956 two separate German teams competed in the Olympic Games from each of the Germanies. The East Germans became famous for their great athletes -- and drug usage. Munich hosted the 1972 summer Olympic Games but the first terrorist attack at an Olympic Games ended in the death of eleven Jewish athletes from Israel. Controversy then surrounded the decision of IOC President Avery Brundage to continue the Games rather than cancel them. The Berlin wall came down in 1989, the East German government collapsed and West Germans reunited the Eastern section into today's Federal Republic of Germany in 1990. The military occupation formally ended in 1991. There are so many topics for further study that any student of Olympic history should have a field day with this country and its Olympic history.

  1. Federal Foreign Office web page on Sport in Germany: Facts About Germany: Sport
  2. Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany in the USA
    4645 Reservoir Road NW
    Washington, DC 20007.
    German Embassy in Washington, DC -- website page on Sport: Culture and Life: Sports
  3. European Primary Schools Association web page on Germany: Study Germany
    This page has a very nice layout with general information about the country with flag, map, and other useful information.
  4. Goethe Institute page on Sports in Germany: Sports Does Germany Good!
  5. Exeter University (Great Britain) page on Sport in Germany: Background: Sport in Germany
  6. The VOYAGE: British-German Connection - page on Sport in Germany: Sport in Germany
    There are numerous excellent links from this page to other sources on German sport.
  7. Youth Sport in Germany: Youth Sport in Germany
  8. Sportmuseum Leipzig web site (in English): Sportmuseum Leipzig

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: GERMANY

GEQ Equatorial Guinea
GHA Ghana

[United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland] English (with a funny accent), Welsh, Scottish form of Gaelic.
[Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom, UK, GB, England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland].

British Olympic Association
1 Wandsworth Plain
London SW18 1EH

tel: 020 8871 2677
fax: 020 8871 9104
email: from their web site: BOA website contact

web site: British Olympic Association

Great Britain has over 60 million people living on islands north of Europe that are slightly smaller than the state of Oregon. Great Britain is the combination of England, Scotland and Wales. The largest portion of the island is England, which centuries ago conquered the kingdoms of Scotland and Wales. Wales is to the west and Scotland to the north. Together these three entities make up GREAT BRITAIN. The UNITED KINGDOM (UK) is the combination of GREAT BRITAIN with NORTHERN IRELAND. Ireland has been in conflict with England for centuries, and during the 20th century there was "the troubles" with Northern Ireland.

England had conquered Scotland and Wales centuries ago and has been the subject of many films popular to the American audience including Braveheart and Robin Hood, Prince of Thieves. Great Britain has a history several thousand years old. There are Roman settlements that can be visited as well as numerous castles and fortresses that you have read about, such as the Tower of London. Robin Hood resided here, with King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. King Henry VIII chopped off his wive's heads when he wanted a new wife. Oliver Twist, Queen Victoria, Winster Churchill -- the history of this nation is intense. American history begins here with settlements in the New World, the Massachusetts Bay Colony, William Penn and Pennsylvania and the Lost Colony on Roanoke Island, North Carolina.

It was in England that earlier efforts to have Olympic Games took place -- Robert Dover's Olimpick Games and William Penney Brookes' Much Wenlock Olympic Games. Pierre de Coubertin visited the latter and was strongly influenced by their success. London hosted the 1908 and 1948 summer Olympic Games and will host the 2012 Olympic Games.

The British have been active in the Olympic Movement from the very beginning -- and had a strong influence on their early evolution. Sports are strong in Great Britain and American football and baseball both evolved from British sports (rugby and rounders). Students will find lots of topics for further research in Great Britain -- and the language will present no problems -- although some words are different and the British people speak with a funny accent.

  1. UK Sport: UK Sport website -- many links within the UK
  2. Department for Culture, Media and Sport of the Government of the United Kingdom Department for Culture, Media and Sport
    A British government website with lots of information and additional links -- see the SPORTS section. This is one of the Ministries of the British government, similar to the "Departments" of the United States government such as the Department of Education, Department of Defense, etc.
  3. History Department, University of Colorado: England and Great Britain on the web
  4. Teacher Oz - Great Britain links: Great Britain links
  5. United Kingdom Track and Field All Time Lists: Great Britain Athletics by Martin Rix
    A personal website by a fan who is into statistics with many listings. Accuracy is not guaranteed; not a scholarly site -- but it is well done.
  6. British Olympic Foundation Education Pack: Olympic Education Pack
  7. BBC Sports page (British Broadcasting Corporation): BBC Sport
    The BBC website has up-to-date information on sport in Great Britain. There are many links to sports coverage as well as one for the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, with historical links from there. It is well done.
  8. University College of London History Newsletter Archive: Olympic Peace?
  9. London Times online pages: Olympic History
    The London Times website has well-written history pages for each Olympic Games. Read history from a British point of view. There are links to each Olympic Games celebration -- this particular link is to the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games. It is very well done.
  10. Rampant Scotland Directory: Rampant Scotland - Links
    The links cover over 12,000 sites that are related to Scotland and its history, culture and all related subjects. The SPORT link SPORTS has hundreds of links related to sports subjects.

Read more at the CIA Factbook: Great Britain

[Hellenic Republic] Informally known as: Greece. Greek, French, English.
[Ellas or Ellada; Elliniki Dhimokratia]. Formally known as Kingdom of Greece.

National Olympic Committee of Greece

- - - -
Greece is slightly smaller than the state of Alabama and includes almost 2,000 islands along with the more famous mainland. Athens was the ancient Greek symbol of power and glory, the home of Aristotle, Plato and Socrates. Today Athens is the capital of modern Greece. The population numbers approximately 10.6 million people, almost all of whom are Greek Orthadox Christians. Athens was the host of the Olympic Games in August, 2004.

Greece is an ancient land that has had a major impact on world history. It was the ancient Greeks who started the Olympic Games as a religious festival in honor of the Greek God ZEUS. These ancient Olympic Games were celebrated every four years for over 1100 years. It was this gathering that united the various Greek city-states such as Sparta, Athens, Thebes and hundreds of others into a common people -- but the ancient Greeks were never a nation. They fought with each other as well as against other invaders, such as the Persians, MAcedonians and later, the Romans.

The Olympic Games and its four year cycle, known as the OLYMPIAD became the calendar for most Greek city-states, a way of marking time that was common to all the Greeks. The ancient Greeks all spoke Greek, of course, but there were different dialects. After 400 BCE, the Athenian dialect became the most commonlly used Greek dialect, and it was spread all over the Middle East through Athenian expansion of trade as well as conquest. The ancient Greeks expanded their territory over the whole Middle East, into many islands as well as North Africa, Syria, Persia and Asia minor (Turkey). Their settlements and colonies were eventually conquered by the Romans, who spoke Latin. Later the Romans and their Greek colonies were conquered by barbarian invasions -- the Goths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, and finaly by the Ottoman Turks.

The religion of Christianity replaced the ancient Greek gods such as Zeus and Apollo, and evolved into the Byzantine Church, also called the Eastern Orthodox Church. Many churches were build on the remains of ancient Greek temples that once honored Zeus. Ancient Olympia was demolished as a religious sanctuary and the Olympic Games were lost in history from the fourth century CE until the 1800's.

Greece rebelled against the Ottoman Empire in 1821 and gained its independence in 1829. Greece has a rather complicated history -- so you need to find numerous sources to get a clear understanding. Very briefly here are highlights.

In 1832 Greece became a monarchy when Great Britain, France and Russia (the Great Powers) placed Prince Otto of Bavaria on the Greek throne. Keep in mind that most of the royal families of Europe were related to each other through marriage, etc. Add to this mixture the complicated politices of nationalism, treaties, ethnic populations and history of wars -- the story of modern Greece gets very complicated.

In a nutshell -- Otto was replaced by seventeen-year-old Prince Christian of Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Glucksburg, more commonly known as Prince William of Denmark. He became King George I of the Hellenes. He was assassinated in 1913. During his rule the first modern Olympic Games were celebrated in Athens and again, ten years later, in 1906. I will not go further into Greek history other than to point out that Italy invaded Greece during World War II, the Greeks kicked their butts out. So the Germans invaded and wrecked havoc. Two Greek groups resisted and fought the Germans and then started a civil war after World War II ended -- communists versus nationalists/monarchists. In 1947 the British withdrew and the United States steped in with President Truman announcing the "Truman Doctrine" to contain the spread of communism. The Greek civil war lasts three years, from 1946 to 1949. The island of Cyprus turns into a battleground between Turkey and Greece, dragging many other nations into the tension, as both Greece and Turkey became part on NATO, a military alliance with the United States, Great Britain and France. In the late 1960's a military coup overthrew the government and ruled for seven years. In 1982 a movie about the Olympic Games won an Academy Award for best film -- CHARIOTS OF FIRE. The music was composed by Greek composer Vangelis Papathansiou (known as VANGELIS) and he also won the Academy Award for Best Music. Athens bid for the centennial Olympic Games in 1996 but Atlanta, Georgia was chosen instead. Greeks was very upset about this. Athens was then selected to host the 2004 Olympic Games, which were feared by many to be a disaster waiting to happen. Construction was seriously delayed and terrorism scared lots of people away. Military forces from several western nations including the United States, Great Britain, NATO allies and Israel were used to secure the country. The 2004 Games came off as a great success and made Greece very proud.

WOW. That is the nutshell. Image how much I left out!

  1. Athens News Agency. The History of Modern Greece
    This site has a nice, brief history of modern Greece from 1900 to the present from a Greek persepctive. It is very well done.
  2. Hellenic Republic -- Embassy of Greece, Washington, DC: Olympic News.
  3. Everett Marder, specialist on modern Greek history. Everett Marder, specialist on modern Greek history.
    A scholar who specializes in modern Greek history and worked for the government as an analyst in the Defense Intelligence Agency (the Pentagon's version of the CIA).
  4. Embassy of Greece, Washington, DC. Imagine that ! Olympic Games in Greece!: Speech by Professor David Young at the Columbia University 22 May, 2003

Read more at the CIA Factbook: CIA Factbook -- Greece.

GRN Grenada
GUA Guatemala
GUI Guinea

[Territory of Guam] English, Chamorro, Japanese.

Guam National Olympic Committee
P. O. Box 21809
GMF Barrigada,
Guam 96921
tel: (671) 647-4662
fax: (671) 646-4233
web site: Guam National Olympic Committee website

Guam is a United States territory ceded from Spain in 1898, with 164,000 citizens living on this North Pacific Ocean island that is three times larger than Washington, DC. A strategically important military and communications base located between Hawaii and the Phillipines, Guam has one non-voting member in the US House of Representatives and a governor.

Read more at the CIA factbook: Territory of Guam.

GUY Guyana
HAI Haiti
HKG Hong Kong
HON Honduras
HUN Hungary
INA Indonesia

[Republic of India] English, Hindi, 14 others.
English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language.

Indian Olympic Association (IOA)
[Bharatiya Olympic Sangh]
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium
New Delhi 110003

tel: +91-11-24366950/ 51/ 52
fax: +91-11-24365953

web site: Indian Olympic Association
Indian Olympic Association links to Indian Sports sites: National Sports Federations & Associations in India

India is about one-third the size of the United States and is located in southern Asia. India shares borders with Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, Nepal and Pakistan. The population of India is enormous -- one billion-sixty-five million people (1,065,070,067 according to CIA estimates in June 2004). This means there are 3.8 times as many people in India as in the United States -- on one-third the land. The CIA has written a very nice, short history which I reproduce below, with just a few additions of my own.

India is the Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, dating back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in the 12th were followed by European traders, beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Great Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World War I and II. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU led to Indian independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. Fundamental concerns in India include the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over the region of Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife, all this despite impressive gains in economic investment and output. India also has an ongoing conflict with China -- another border dispute which has sometimes led to military clashes -- but so far -- no wars.

In sports India has a very long history dating to ancient times including many of the martial arts and wrestling. In the modern Olympic Games India has dominated the sport of field hockey. Other popular sports include cricket, basketball, volleyball and badminton.

  1. Government of India -- Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports: Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports
  2. Embassy of India, Washington, D.C.: Indian Embassy in the USA -- site map.
  3. High Commission of India (Embassy), London, UK: Sports in India.
  4. Sports In India, Indian Cricket. Sports In India
  5. sports pages: (incomplete) Hockey
    This site had started preparations on sports in India and completed some very interesting pages but either they gave up or their dates are never updated -- the sports section is incomplete, but very interesting.
  6. Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. Sports in India
    This site is more complete and seems to be similar, or the same people, as the Sports in India site mentioned above.
  7. Sports in Ancient India: Sports in Ancient India
  8. A fan based sports web site in India: Sports India
  9. IndiaPress -- Sports in India: Sports in India

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: India

IRI Islamic Republic of Iran
IRL Ireland

[Republic of Iraq] Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian

National Olympic Committee of Iraq
PO Box 441

tel: 964-1-537-3218
fax: 964-1-772-7111

web site: NOC of Iraq

Iraq first sent athletes to the 1948 London Olympic Summer Games and has never had an athlete in the Winter Olympic Games. The only Olympic medal won by an Iraqi athlete was a bronze medal awarded to weightlifter Aziz Abdul Wahid at the 1960 Rome Olympic Games. On May 17, 2003, the International Olympic Committee suspended Iraq from the Olympic Movement. Uday Hussein*, son of dictator Saddam Hussein*, was director of the Iraqi NOC at that time. He seized control of the organization in 1984 and ran it until he fled Baghdad in March of 2003. On February 29, 2004 the International Olympic Committee voted unanimously to lift Iraq's suspension and welcomed the country back to the Olympic Movement.

* The family name of Hussein is also spelled as Husayn on US government websites because it is difficult to transliterate the Arabic alphabet into the Latin-based English alphabet.

Read More at the CIA Factbook: Iraq

ISL Iceland

[State of Israel] Hebrew, Arabic, Yiddish, English.

The Olympic Committee of Israel
2 Shitrit Street
P.O. Box 53310
Tel Aviv 69482

tel: (972-3) 6498385, and 6498385
fax: (972-3) 6498395

Web sites:
NOC of Israel
NOC of Israel web site -- ENGLISH
NOC of Israel web site -- Hebrew, main page

Israel is slightly smaller than the state of New Jersey with a population of approximately 6.2 million people, of whom 80 percent are Jewish and 20 percent Arab, Christian or other ethnic or religious groups. Israel was created after World War II and has been in several wars with its Arab neighbors. Israeli athletes first participated in the 1952 Olympic Games. In 1972 members of the Israeli Olympic team were attacked and taken hostage by Palestinian terrorists in the Olympic Village at Munich. The rescue attempt at the Furstenfeldbruck airport was a disaster and in the end eleven Israeli athletes and coaches died. The Olympic Games were delayed 24 hours for a memorial service and then resumed amid criticism. Avery Brundage was the IOC President and was severely criticized for what appeared to be insensitive behaviour. Germany was criticized for a botched rescue attempt. In the following years every terrorist involved in the Munich murders was hunted down and assassinated by Israeli agents. Middle Eastern politics are reflected in the Olympic Games as well as other international sporting events when Arab countries boycott if Israelis attend. Many topics for further research for students revolve around Israel and its Middle Eastern neighbors.

  1. Here is a well-written history of sport in Israel: The Story of Sport in Israel.
  2. The Wingate Institute for Physical Education and Sport: The Wingate Institute for Physical Education and Sport.
  3. The Jewish Virtual Library page on Sports: Sports In Israel.
  4. Sports Associations in Israel: Sports Association Links in Israel

Read More at the CIA Factbook: Israel

ISV Virgin Islands
ITA Italy
IVB British Virgin Islands

JAM Jamaica -- not working on MAy 11, 2005.
Jamaica Information Service: Jamaica Information Service - SPORTS

JOR Jordan

Japanese Olympic Committee
web site: Japanese Olympic Committee website
The Japanese NOC website is very attractive in the Japanese language section and very limited and not nearly as well-done in the English language section.

KAZ Kazakhstan
KEN Kenya
KGZ Kyrgyzstan
KOR Republic of Korea (South Korea)
KSA Saudia Arabia

[State of Kuwait] Arabic, (English is widely used).

Kuwait Olympic Committee
PO Box 795
Safat 13008
State of Kuwait

tel: (965) 2637904 / 2414444
fax: (965) 2411754

web site: Kuwait Olympic Committee - English pages
This link has java script and flash. Their English translations are poorly done and may cause the younger readers some difficulty in understanding their articles.
Kuwait is a Persian Gulf state slightly smaller than NEW JERSEY situated between Iraq on the north and Saudi Arabia on the south. From 1899 on the area was under the protection and control of the British Empire and became an independent state in 1961. Almost entirely a desert, Kuwait has almost no fresh water but does have ten percent of the world's petroleum resources, making it a very strategic area in a volatile region of the world -- the Middle East. The population of under 2.3 million people is well-educated and participates in numerous sports activies -- especially football (soccer), swimming, basketball, volleyball, gymnastics, team handball, athletics (track & field), fencing, tennis, judo and taekwondo.

  1. Kuwaiti Embassy in Japan: Sport in Kuwait

Read more at the CIA Factbook: Kuwait

LAO Laos People's Democratic Republic
LAT Latvia
LBA Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
LBR Liberia
LCA St. Lucia
LES Lesotho
LIB Lebanon
LIE Liechtenstein

[Lithuania] Lithuanian, Polish, Russian

The Lithuanian National Olympic Committee (LNOC)
Olimpieciu str. 15 (was Zveju str.)
LT-2051 Vilnius

tel: +370 5 2780640, +370 5 2780641, +370 5 2780642, +370 5 2780653, +370 5 2780656;
fax: +370 5 2780660, +370 5 2780662, +370 5 2780663
web site: Lithuanian NOC

  1. History of Lithuania: History of Lithania
    This history page is not an academic work however it is an easy read of the complicated history of Lithuania. It is useful in understanding the relationship of Lithuania with Poland, Sweden, Russia and the many tragedies in Lithuanian history.

  2. Lithunian History timeline: History of Lithuania
    This web site is an official German Government page hosted by the Federal Foreign Office and is in the form of a timeline with limited information -- a well-done overview. You can go elsewhere for more details.

Read more at the CIA Factbook: Lithuania

LUX Luxembourg
MAD Madagascar
MAR Morocco
MAS Malaysia
MAW Malawi
MDA Republic of Moldova
MDV Maldives
MEX Mexico
MGL Mongolia

[The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia] Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish, Serbo-Croatian, others.
[Republika Makedonija]

Macedonian Olympic Committee
P.O. Box 86
17 Kuzman Josifovski Pitu blvd.
Blok 1, Kompleks Skopjanka
91000 Skopje,

tel: (389 2) 2462506
tel: (389 2) 2463024
fax: (389 2) 3116068

Web site: NOC of the Republic of Macedonia

This country of slightly over 2 million people is about the size of Vermont. Situated just north of Greece there has been some conflict with Greece over the country's name -- which is Hellenic. There is a lot of ethnic tension as the country is two-thirds christian and one-third Muslim. Neighbors include Albania to the west, Serbia & Montenegro to the north and Bulgaria to the East.

Read more at the CIA Factbook: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

MLI Mali

[Republic of Malta] Maltese, English.

Malta Olympic Committee
[Kumitat Olimpiku Malti]
National Swimming Pool Complex
Maria Tereza Spinelli Street
Gzira GZR06

Tel: (+356) 332801
Fax: (+356) 332798

web site: NOC of Malta
web site (May 23, 2005) Malta Olympic Committee -- Kumitat Olimpiku Malti

This small island nation became part of the British Empire in 1814 and gained independence in 1964. The country has 400,000 people on an island slightly smaller than Washington, DC.

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Malta.
MON Monaco
MOZ Mozambique
MRI Mauritius
MTN Mauritania
MYA Myanmar
NAM Nambia
NCA Nicaragua
NED Netherlands
NEP Nepal

[New Zealand] English, Maori

(Postal address)
New Zealand Olympic Committee
PO Box 643

(Physical Address)
New Zealand Olympic Committee
Third Floor
Olympic House
265 Wakefield Street
New Zealand

tel: 04 385 0070
fax: 04 385 0090

web site: New Zealand Olympic Committee website

New Zealand was first inhabited by the Polynesian Maori people around 800 CE. Europeans arrived beginning in 1642 while exploring the South Pacific, although they wrongly believed it was the west coast of South America. In the second half of the 1700's more Europeans arrived -- Captain Cook in particular -- and settled the Islands. A competition between the French and the British ended in 1840 when the Maori signed a treaty with Great Britain. The Islands became part of the British Empire and gained independence in 1947, although the British monarch is still the formal head of state. New Zealand is slightly smaller than Colorado and has just under 4 million people. New Zealander Leonard Albert Cuff (1866-1954) met Pierre de Coubertin in 1892 while in Paris with a New Zealand group of athletes and enthusiastically supported the idea of the Olympic Games. He was elected as one of the original 13 members of the IOC and served until 1905.

  1. Sport and Recreation New Zealand: Sport and Recreation New Zealand
  2. The New Zealand Herald: New Zealand Herald Sports Page
  3. Sport and Exercise Science New Zealand: Sport and Exercise Science New Zealand
  4. New Zealand Sports Drug Agency: New Zealand Sports Drug Agency
  5. Athletics New Zealand: Athletics New Zealand Home Page
  6. Auckland City Libraries: Olympic Games

Read more at the CIA Factbook: New Zealand

NGR Nigeria
NIG Niger

[Norway] Norwegian, Sami, Finnish.

The Norwegian Olympic Committee and Confederation of Sports
Norges Idrettsforbund og Olympiske Komit?
Serviceboks 1
Ullev?l Stadion
0840 Oslo

tel: +47 21 02 90 00
fax: +47 21 02 90 01

web sites:
Norwegian Olympic Committee website (in English): Norwegian NOC -- Sport in Norway
Norwegian Olympic Committee website (in Norwegian): Norwegian NOC web site (in Norwegian)

Norway is slightly larger than New Mexico with about 4.5 million people. The Vikings lived here and for two centuries raided Europe. Following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994 the invasions tapered off. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted for more than four centuries. After the Napoleonic wars in 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Norway remained neutral in World War I and proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II. Nevertheless, it was not able to avoid a five-year occupation by Nazi Germany (1940-1945). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. In 1952 the winter Olympic Games were held in Oslo. In 1994 the winter Olympic Games were held in Lillehammer.

  1. Norwegian Sports Statistics: Norwegian Olympic Committee and Federation of Sports; Teams and membership, by regional sports association; 2001.
  2. Lillehammer Olympic Park Ltd: Lillehammer Olympic Park Ltd., in English with links
  3. Read current events here: Norwegian newspaper AFTENPOSTEN in English.

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Norway

NRU Nauru
OMA Oman
PAK Pakistan
PAN Panama
PAR Paraguay
PER Peru
PHI Philippines
PLE Palestine
PLW Palau

[Independent State of Papua New Guinea] Melanesian Pidgin serves as the lingua franca, English spoken by 1%-2%, Motu spoken in Papua region with 715 indigenous languages -- many unrelated.
[Formerly known as Territory of Papua and New Guinea].

Papua New Guinea National Olympic Committee
PO Box 467
Boroko, Port Moresby

tel: (+675) 325-1449
tel: (+625) 325-1411
fax: (+675) 325-1851
web site: Papua New Guinea NOC

The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - is slightly larger than California with a population of approximately 5.5 million people. It is the area east of Indonesia in Oceania -- the South Pacific. The area was divided between Germany (north) and Great Britain (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. During World War II the Japanese invaded and controlled the area and tremendous battles were fought with Australian and American troops driving the Japanese forces out in 1944, at great cost. After the War ended Australia resumed government administration until 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997 after claiming some 20,000 lives.
  1. Papua New Guinea Government online: Papua New Guinea Government website
  2. Embassy of Papua New Guinea to the Americas, Washington, DC: Embassy of Papua New Guinea, Washington, DC
  3. US Department of State: Background Note: Papua New Guinea
  4. US Army Center of Military history pages: New Guinea: 24 January 1943-31 December 1944


POL Poland
POR Portugal
PRK Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)
PUR Puerto Rico

[State of Qatar] Arabic, English.

Qatar National Olympic Committee
Olympic Building
P.O. Box 7494

tel: (974) 445 44 44
fax: (974) 441 51 11
web site: Qatar NOC website --

Qatar is a small peninsula in the Middle East, bordering Saudi Arabia, jutting into the Persian Gulf. Slightly smaller than Connecticut it has a population of approximately 820,000 people. Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar was a British protectorate until independence in 1971. The amir who had ruled the country was overthrown by his son, the current Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, in a bloodless coup in 1995. In 2001, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. Oil and natural gas revenues enable Qatar to have a per capita income not far below the leading industrial countries of Western Europe.

Quatar took part in the 1976 Montreal Olympic Games with administrators, then created their National Olympic Committee in 1979. Beginning with the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games Quatar has sent its athletes to compete in the Olympic Games.

Read more at the CIA Factbook: Qatar

ROM Romania
This site is from a non-profit organization established to promote Romania on the world wide web and educate the public about the country. Many other pages within the site have English text that is a bit rough, but understandable.
[RUSSIA] Russian,
National Olympic Committee of Russia

Moscow 2012 Bid web site: Moscow 2012 Olympic Bid

RWA Rwanda
SAM Samoa
SEN Senegal
SEY Seychelles
SIN Singapore
SKN St. Kitts and Nevis
SLE Sierra Leone

[Slovak Republic]
Slovak NOC History page: The Slovak Olympic Movement in Dates

Olympic Committee of Slovenia website: (in Slovenian).

Olimpijski komite Slovenije
Celov?ka 25, 1000 Ljubljana
tel: + 386 1 230 60 00
fax: + 386 1 230 60 20
SMR San Marino

[REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA] formerly known as the Union of South Africa.
11 official languages: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu.

National Olympic Committee of South Africa
Physical Address:
Olympic House
James and Ethel Gray Park
Athol Oaklands Road
Melrose, 2196

Postal Address:
P O Box 1355
Houghton, 2041

tel: +27 (11) 483-3788
fax: +27 (11) 483-2726
web site: NOC of South Africa

South Africa was settled by the Dutch (known as BOERS) and seized by the British as early as 1806. The BOER WAR of 1899-1902 gave the British more control. The country developed a very controversial policy of apartheid -- meaning the complete separation of races. Only white South African athletes were allowed to compete for its team in the Olympic Games from 1912 to 1970, when South Africa was thrown out of the Olympic Movement for its policy of racial discrimination. South Africa was barred from the Olympic Games until 1992 because of these racist policies, and readmitted in 1992 for the Barcelona Olympic Games. The country, today populated by over 42 million citizens, is over 75% black with minorities of white, colored and Indian ethnic groups. One of the major political controversies of the Modern Olympic Games revolves around the race issue and this is a good subject for further historical study.

  1. Stanford University Sports link page: South Africa Sports
  2. Embassy of South Africa in Washington, DC
    3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW
    Washington, DC 20008
    web page: Embassy of South Africa

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Republic of South Africa.

SOL Solomon Islands
SOM Somalia

[Kingdom of Spain] Castilian Spanish, Catalan, Galician, Basque. (note: Castilian is the official language nationwide; the other languages are official regionally).

Olympic Committee of Spain
Gran Via de Hortaleza
Calle Arequipa 13
28043 Madrid

tel: (34 91) 381 55 00
fax: (34 91) 381 96 39
web sites:
Spanish Olympic Committee: Spanish Olympic Committee
This web site was not working when I tested it on January 28, 2005 -- but it is a major Spanish sports web site provider -- try searching the main page at:

Spain is slightly larger than twice the size of Oregon with a population of over 40 million people. Located in southwest Europe it borders Andorra, Portugal and France. The southern edge of the country -- just across from Morocco -- is Gibraltar, a tiny enclave that has been controlled by Great Britain for 300 years -- thus controlling the maritime entrance from the North Atlantic to the Mediterranean Sea. Spain was a land of numerous independent kingdoms until the Moors conquered them early in the eighth century AD and ruled for almost 700 years when Christians re-conquered all the territories and captured Grenada in 1492. Spain was the host nation for Christopher Columbus and his explorations of the New World that resulted in the colonization that led to the destruction of Indian civilizations (Aztecs, Mayans) and the eventual creation of the nations of Mexico, United States and Canada. The powerful Spanish Empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Spanish failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II, but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). In the second half of the 20th century, Spain went from dictatorship under General Franco to a parliamentary monarchy headed by King Juan Carlos.

In 1936 there was an attempt to hold and alternative Olympic Games in Barcelona in protest to the Berlin Olympics, which were being boycotted by some athletes in protest of the Nazi government of Adolf Hitler. The Spanish civil war started the same day as these alternative Games. In 1992 the city of Barcelona hosted the summer Olympic Games in what had been considered one of the most successful celebrations to date. The Spaniard Juan Antonio Samaranch was elected President of the International Olympic Committee and served in this role from 1980 to 2001.

  1. Olympic Studies Centre: Olympic Studies Centre International Directory.
  2. IOC page on Juan Antonio Samaranch: Juan Antonio Samaranch
  3. Competition Results (English and Spanish pages): < AHREF=""> Competition Results
    This personal website has many pages of results from Olympic Games and major sports competitions such as European and World championships. Lots of statistics.

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Spain

SRI Sri Lanka
SUD Sudan

[Swiss Confederation] German (official) 63.7%, French (official) 19.2%, Italian (official) 7.6%, Romansch (official) 0.6%, other 8.9%
[Confoederatio Helvetica -- derived from Latin, therefore the abreviation "CH." Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (German), Confederation Suisse (French), Confederazione Svizzera (Italian); and short forms: Schweiz (German), Suisse (French), Svizzera (Italian)

Swiss Olympic Association
Postfach 606
3000 Bern 22

tel: 031 / 359 71 11
fax: 031 / 352 33 80
web site: Swiss Olympic Association
The Swiss Olympic Association web site is only in German and French, which is very interesting, since their name is officially in English. Must be a neutrality thing.

Switzerland is land-locked in central Europe, a country slightly smaller than twice the size of New Jersey. Or, if you cannot imagine that -- Switzerland would fit inside Pennsylvania three times and spill slightly over the Delaware River into New Jersey just a bit. There are an estimated 7.5 million people in Switzerland who speak four different languages. It drives me crazy when I get there -- people carry on conversations in multiple languages and never miss a beat. Now there are regions of the country that are emphasizing a fifth language in their schools -- English. Amazing.

The Swiss are quite unique in the world with a concept of neutrality that has kept them out of conflict for almost 200 years. An ancient land originally inhabited by various tribes that conquered or were, in turn, conquered by others -- three Swiss Cantons banded together to form a Federation in 1291. You know part of the story from the stories of William Tell shooting an arrow and splitting an apple perched on his son's head.

Over the years the neighboring Cantons (regions or states) joined the Federation of States until the current borders were extablished in 1815. In 1848 the Federation of States became a Confederation with a Federal Constitution. Neutrality was officially declared in 1812. Switzerland did not take part in World War I nor World War II, although they were armed to the teeth. How they stayed out of World War II is a fascinating story -- events that even some of my Swiss friends did not know. I'll leave it for you to research what actually happened -- you will be surprised with what you find. If you ever get to Switzerland, take a ride on the trains through the Alps and keep your eyes WIDE open -- you may just see a Swiss military jet land on a highway and disappear into a mountain.

Switzerland was the home to the League of Nations after World War I. It is the home of various United Nations organizations, the Red Cross, and the International Olympic Committee. In 1915 Pierre de Coubertin moved the IOC headquarters to Lausanne, on the banks of Lake Geneva, due to World War I. Switzerland was neutral and France, his homeland, and was at war with Germany. Both were active in the Olympic Movement. In fact the 1916 Olympic Games were planned for Berlin, Germany. Because the war was still in progress the 1916 Berlin Olympic Games were cancelled.

Switzerland is home to the IOC and in recent years a magnificent library and museum were built for Olympic studies and memorabilia. Switzerland is famous for its chocolate and cheese, both of which are used in fondu. They make precision watches and are most well-known for their secret banking system with numbered accounts. Because of the secrecy code and the deposits made during World War II -- a huge crisis has evolved that has rocked the banking world. Numerous lawsuits and investigations in recent years have forced Swiss banks to reveal names of depositors and their assets in order to find stolen assets of conquered nations from the World War II era. The whole issue was brought to light by a Swiss bank employee who became upset when he found his own bank destroying records of the old accounts.

The Swiss have been slow to change and their neutrality is waning slightly. Women's suffrage only came in 1971. A new Federal Constitution was approved in 1999. Switzerland finally joined the United Nations in 2002. The Swiss did not accept the new currency in Europe -- the EURO and continue to use their own Swiss Franc as currency.
Switzerland is well-known for its magnificent scenery and mountains -- the Alps. Skiing and other winter sports are very popular. Resorts are world famous. The Winter Olympic Games have been held in Switzerland twice -- both times at St. Moritz ski resort (1928 and 1948).

  1. Federal Office for Sport (In German, French, Italian): Bundesamt fur Sport Magglingen
    Federal Office for Sport (In English): Federal Office for Sport
    The Federal Office for Sport is one part of the Federal Department of Defense, Civil Protection and Sport (DDPS). It is a very interesting observation that sport (health and fitness) is part of the nation's self-defense structure. This is the European origin of Physical Education -- the use of gymnastics and calisthenics to train people and make them stronger. The philosophy in the USA and England was that sport (not gymnastics) develops "character" and future leaders.
  2. Sport and Recreation in Switzerland: Sport Management: Master of Science in Sport Administration and Technology
  3. Map of Switzerland at MAPQUEST: Map of Switzerland
  4. Swissinfo - Switzerland's News and Information Platform: Swissinfo page -- ENGLISH
    This site is the online news site with many up-to-the minute stories and lots of links for current events. I give you the English language starting page but there are other languages available including German, French, Italian, Spanish, Portugese, Japanese, Arabic and Chinese. To select one of these languages go to this page instead: SWISSINFO main page.
  5. Private web site About Switzerland: About Switzerland
    This personal website (sponsored by a business) is one of the most informative sites I have seen on the web. Answers to many questions about Switzerland, it's language, culture and customs, and numerous other interesting facts. If I could find a page like this for each country -- I would be in heaven. I compliment this writer for an outstanding web site! Toll!!

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Switzerland

SUR Suriname

[Kingdom of Sweden] Swedish, some Sami and Finnish.
[Konungariket Sverige]

Swedish Olympic Committee (Sveriges Olympiska Kommittee)
Sofiatornet, Olympiastadion

tel: +46 (0)8 402 68 00
fax: +46 (0)8 402 68 18

web site: NOC of Sweden - IN SWEDISH Click on the ENGLISH flag in the left column for the pages that have been translated into English.

Sweden is an ancient Nordic civilization with a Viking history. It was a military power in the 17th century but has been a neutral nation for over 200 years and did not take part in either World War I nor World War II. A country of just under 9 million people, it is slightly larger than California. Sweden has been actively involved in the Olympic Movement from the very beginning and hosted a very successful Olympic Games in Stockholm in 1912. In 1956 the summer Olympic Games were in Melbourne, Australia, but import laws prohibited horses from being brought into Australia, so the equestrian events of the 1956 Olympic Games took place in Stockholm.

  1. Swedish Sports Confederation web site: Swedish Sports Confederation
  2. Swedish History from a Swedish school project: Swedish History School Project

Read more at the CIA Factbook: Sweden

SWZ Swaziland
SYR Syrian Arab Republic
TAN United Republic of Tanzania
TGA Tonga
THA Thailand
TJK Tajikistan
TKM Turkmenistan
TOG Togo

Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei NOC web site
This page is in Chinese and has lots of moving images, so you need a browser that supports this stuff.

TRI Trinidad & Tobago
TUN Tunisia

[Turkey] Turkish, plus Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian and Greek
[Republic of Turkey] Turkiye Cumhuriyeti

National Olympic Committee of Turkey
T?rkiye Milli Olimpiyat Komitesi
Olympic House / Olimpiyatevi
4.kisim sonu 34158 Atak?y

tel: +90 212 560 0707
fax: +90 212 560 0055
web site (In Turkish): Turkish Olympic Committee website
web site (In English): Turkish Olympic Committee website

Turkey is a country of over 68 million people living in a territory slightly larger than the state of Texas. An ancient land that shares its history with Greece, Turkey is the site of many historically important Greek and Roman excavations. This ancient region was conquered first by the Greeks, then by the Romans, then by the Christian remnants of the Roman Empire -- called the Byzantine era. Islamic Turks destroyed the Byzantine empire in 1453. Then the Crusaders followed.

The ancient city known as Byzantium became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, was renamed Constantinopolis, known in English as Constantinople. Later it was renamed Istanbul by the Ottoman Turks.

In the 1800's the Ottoman Empire began to crumble. The Greeks, supported by the French, British and Russians, began a civil war in 1821 and gained independence in 1829 -- but tension still exists to this day. The Greeks and Turks both occupy the Island of Cyprus.

The complications in the Balkans that started in the 19th century still exist today. In 1875 rebellions broke out in Bosnia and Serbia. In 1878 Serbia and Romania gained independence, while Bulgaria was established as an autonomous region. Bosnia came under Austrian administration, but it remained Turkish. In 1879 Austria occupied parts of Serbia, then returned it in 1908 when the Austro-Hungarian Empire annexed Bosnia. In 1912 an alliance was formed between Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria, all Christian states, against Turkey, an Islamic state. Two Balkan wars followed -- in 1912 and 1913. Turkey lost the regions of Bulgaria and Albania. In World War I the Ottoman Empire joined Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire -- but the war ended in their defeat. In 1923 the Ottoman Empire came to an end as Turkey emerged as a secular state -- a republic. Then Ankara became the capital replacing Istanbul.

All of this complicated history is important to understanding the changing names of countries that were part of the Olympic Movement earlier, then became part of Yugoslavia, then emerged as independent states again in today's Olympic Games. Lots of good stuff here for you to research further.

  1. An easy-to-read history of Istanbul: History of Istanbul
  2. Sport in Turkey: Turkish Daily News Sports Page.
  3. Turkish sport and culture links: Turkish Sports

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Turkey

UAE United Arab Emirates
UGA Uganda

[Ukraine] Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian
Formerly known as Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

National Olympic Committee of Ukraine
Esplanadna str. 42, 4th floor
Kiev 01023
tel: (380 44) 246 62 33
fax: (380 44) 220-95-33; 248-75-06

web site: NOC Ukraine website - in English

Ukraine is the second largest country in Europe, slightly smaller than Texas with 48 million people. A European power in the 10th and 11th centuries Ukraine has been conquered by various rival powers beginning with the Mongol invasion. It was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Cossack Hetmanate was established during the mid-17th century. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine was briefly independent (1917-1920), but was reconquered by the Soviet union. Ukraine became an independent state again when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Ukrainian athletes have participated in the Olympic Games since 1952 when the USSR first sent an Olympic team. Approximately 25% of Soviet Olympic teams were Ukrainians. The 1980's nuclear disaster at Chernobyl is located in Ukraine. Lots of history to study in this very old nation.

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: Ukraine

[United States] English, Spanish (spoken by a sizable minority)
United States Olympic Committee
Colorado Springs Olympic Training Center
National Headquarters
One Olympic Plaza
Colorado Springs, CO 80909

tel: (719) 866-4500

ARCO Training Center
2800 Olympic Parkway
Chula Vista, CA 91915
tel: (619) 656-1500

Lake Placid Olympic Training Center
421 Old Military Road
Lake Placid, NY 12946
tel: (518) 523-2600

U.S. Olympic Education Center - NMU
1401 Presque Isle Avenue
Marquette, MI 49855
tel: 906-227-2888

US Olympic Committee main website: US Olympic Committee website (Colorado Springs)
USOC Education center website: US Olympic Education Center (Michigan)
USOC Press Box: USOC Press Box
US Olympic Committee Kid's Base Camp website: USOC Kid's Base Camp

The United States was one of Great Britain's colonies. In 1776 the 13 colonies broke away from Great Britain in the Revolutionary War and independence was formally recognized in 1783 with the Treaty of Paris. The 50 states are about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; about two and a half times the size of Western Europe. The population is over 290 million people.

The modern Olympic Games has had American participation since Pierre de Coubertin created the IOC. The American Olympic Committee was an informal organization until 1920, the name changed to the United States Olympic Association and then in 1950 the name changed to the present USOC. Headquarters was in New York City but the USOC moved when the city of Colorado Springs leased a former US Air Force base to the USOC for $1 per year beginning in 1977. Since then millions of Dollars have been spent constructing a large athletic training facility for the US Olympic teams.

Americans have had tremendous success in the Olympic Games. Many famous athletes have set records but Jim Thorpe and Jesse Owens stand out for recognition, but there are so many -- I cannot list them here (George Patton and Avery Brundage were 1912 athletes, Johnny Weissmuller was a famous swimmer who became a movie Tarzan, boxer Cassius Clay won gold in Rome in 1960 and renamed himself Muhammad Ali, Mark Spitz won seven gold medals at Munich 1972). The Olympic Games of 1904 were in St. Louis, in 1932 and 1984 they were in Los Angeles, in 1996 they were in Atlanta. Winter Olympic Games were in Lake Placid (1932), Squaw Valley (1960), and Salt Lake City (2000). Avery Brundage was President of the International Olympic Committee for many years and was a dominating philosophical force for "amateurism" for many years. The 1984 Olympic Games were hosted by a private corporation and they made a profit, leading many cities worldwide to become interested in hosting the Olympic Games. The economics of the Olympic Movement rely upon American corporate support, most notably television revenue and sponsorships from companies like Coca-Cola. Students will have no difficulty finding topics for further research.

  1. The US House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce - Hearings: Legislative Efforts to Reform the USOC
  2. Colorado Springs Gazette online - USOC news: USOC News from the Colorado Gazette
  3. Olympic domain names and lawsuit (2000): IOC in rem Suit
    This website is the law firm of Silverberg Goldman & Bikoff, LLP., in Washington, DC., and has downloadable documents of the lawsuit filed against internet domain owners who used the word "Olympic" in the name without permission from the IOC. The suit was filed in United States Federal Court for the Eastern District of Virginia.
    University of Illinois Archives: Avery Brundage Collection

Read more at the CIA FACTBOOK: CIA FACTBOOK -- United States

Over time I will add more links to the USOC section -- there are hundreds!

URU Uruguay
UZB Uzbekistan
VAN Vanuatu
VEN Venezuela
VIE Vietnam
VIN St. Vincent & the Grenadines
YEM Yemen
YUG Yugoslavia
ZAM Zambia
ZIM Zimbabwe

Our other NOC pages....
Page 1 - NOC Directory - Introduction and How to Use the Directory.
Page 2 - NOC Directory - Alphabetical List in English, with abreviations.
Page 3 - NOC Directory - NOC's by Continental Association.
Page 4 - NOC Directory - NOC Addresses and contact information. (You are here now).

If you use any information from ANY web site for your research --
then you should "cite" the source of the information as follows:

Last name, First Name. Title of page.
Date or latest update of page. The full URL address.
The date that you viewed the page.

So, cite this page as:

Abrams, Harvey. National Olympic Committee Directory, Page 4.
February 5, 2023.
And the date that you viewed this page.

Web pages change frequently -- and sometimes they disappear.
I always put the original date that I created the page PLUS
the date of the most recent updates near the bottom of each page
in the lower left corner. You cite this page (and all your sources)
so a reader can return in order to check the accuracy of your work.

Harvey Abrams, President
IISOH Library & Museum
PO Box 732
State College, PA, USA 16804
tel: (814) 321-4018
Click to go to the IISOH home page....

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Updated with additions and corrections October 8, 2006
Updates made on February 24, 2012
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Updated September 10, 2016
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Updated July 15, 2018
Updated August 8, 10, 15, 17, 2018
Updated September 16, 17, 2018
Updated November 29, 2018
Updated January 3, 4, 2019
Updated January 23, 30, 2023
Updated February 5, progress